Since the 1960s, testimony by representatives of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in thousands of criminal cases has relied on evidence from Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead (CABL), a forensic technique that compares the elemental composition of bullets found at a crime scene to the elemental composition of bullets found in a suspect s possession. Different from ballistics techniques that compare striations on the barrel of a gun to those on a recovered bullet, CABL is used when no gun is recovered or when bullets are too small or mangled to observe striations. Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence assesses the scientific validity of CABL, finding that the FBI should use a different statistical analysis for the technique and that, given variations in bullet manufacturing processes, expert witnesses should make clear the very limited conclusions that CABL results can support. The report also recommends that the FBI take additional measures to ensure the validity of CABL results, which include improving documentation, publishing details, and improving on training and oversight.
Table of Contents
|2. Compositional Analysis||12-25|
|3. Statistical Analysis of Bullet Lead Data||26-70|
|5. Major Findings and Recommendations||109-114|
|Appendix A: Statement of Task||115-117|
|Appendix B: Committee Membership||118-123|
|Appendix C: Committee Meeting Agendas||124-129|
|Appendix D: Glossary||130-132|
|Appendix E: Basic Principles of Statistics||133-141|
|Appendix F: Simulating False Match Probabilities Based on Normal Theory||142-150|
|Appendix G: Data Analysis of Table 1, Randich et al.||151-156|
|Appendix H: Principal Components Analysis: How Many Elements Should Be Measured?||157-162|
|Appendix I: The Birthday Problem Analogy||163-164|
|Appendix J: Understanding the Significance of the Results of Trace Elemental Analysis of Bullet Lead||165-168|
|Appendix K: Statistical Analysis of Bullet Lead Data by Karen Kafadar and Clifford Spiegelman||169-214|
The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Rightslink service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Rightslink, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Rightslink allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Rightslink you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the National Academies Press (NAP) through Rightslink:
Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Rightslink service, please contact:
Rightslink Customer Care
Tel (toll free): 877/622-5543
To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at 800-624-6242 for pricing.
To request permission to translate a book published by the National Academies Press or its imprint, the Joseph Henry Press, please click here to view more information.