The North Pacific Research Board (NPRB) was established by Congress in 1997 to recommend marine research activities to the Secretary of Commerce on or relating to the fisheries or marine ecosystem in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, Arctic Ocean, and related bodies of water. NPRB called on the National Academies to develop a comprehensive long range science plan pertaining to its research activities. This assistance has been provided in two phases. In phase one, beginning in early 2003, a National Academies committee worked to understand the purpose of the NPRB, gather information to help identify research needs, and provide advice on the components of a sound science plan. The committee's assessment is contained in a report released in early 2004, Elements of a Science Plan for the North Pacific Research Board. With this guidance as a tool, the NPRB staff, Science Panel, and Advisory Panel worked together to write a draft science plan to steer the program in the coming decade. During the second phase, the same committee reviewed the NPRB's draft science plan and provided final feedback to the NPRB. It is a focused review, generally following the organization of the NPRB document. This report is intended primarily as a direct communication from the committee to those planning the NPRB's programs, to help them improve the science plan and ensure successful implementation.