ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation
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ACRP Report 4:
Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation examines key elements associated with the creation of a six-step market-based strategy for improving the quality of public mode services at U.S. airports. The report also addresses the context for public transportation to major airports, explores the attributes of successful airport ground access systems, presents an airport by airport summary of air traveler ground access mode-share by public transportation services, and more.


  • Transportation — Aviation
  • Transportation — Public Transportation
  • Transportation — Administration and Management

Publication Info

215 pages | 8.5 x 11

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xii
Summary 1-14
Chapter 1 - Six Steps in a Market-Based Strategy for Improving Airport Ground Access 15-15
Coordinate with the Regional Planning Process 16-17
Data Collection for the Airport Ground Access Survey 18-19
Data Collection to Monitor the Performance of the System 20-20
Geographic Scale of the Airport Ground Access Markets 21-21
Density and Market Support Associated with Specific Modes 22-23
Best Practices in the United States: Examples of Market Types at U.S. Airports 24-24
Lessons Learned from Successful Systems 25-26
Summary: Designing to Deal with Revealed Attributes 27-27
Best Practices in the United States: Service Based on Markets 28-28
Encouraging the Use of High-Occupancy Service 29-29
Learning from Recent U.S. Airport Designs 30-30
Step 6: Present Information about Ground Access Services to the Traveler 31-31
Conclusion 32-33
Understanding the Scale of Airport Ground Access 34-34
The Scale of the Public Mode Volumes at These Airports 35-35
What Has Happened over the Last Decade? 36-38
Trip Purpose: Why Do Airline Passengers Travel? 41-43
National Patterns of Access to Airports and Terminals 44-44
Daily Public Mode Volumes to Airports 45-45
Implications for Choice of Ground Access Mode 46-47
Ground Access Issues and the Regional Planning Process 48-49
Environmental Approvals in Europe 50-50
What's Next? 51-51
Understanding Successful Airport Ground Access Systems 52-52
Does Airport Size Explain Ridership? 53-53
Does the Quality of the Airport Connection Explain Ridership? 54-54
Does Line-Haul Speed Explain High Ridership? 55-57
Is Higher Speed or Directness of Service More Important? 58-60
The Implications of Dedicated Premium Service 61-61
Berlin Brandenburg Airport 62-62
Chicago Midway and O'Hare Airports 63-63
Summing It Up 64-64
Desired Attributes of Van and Bus Service to U.S. Airports 65-66
What's Next? 67-67
Part 1: Best Practices at U.S. Airports 68-68
Tier 1 69-69
San Francisco (23% Market Share) 70-70
Boston (18% Market Share) 71-72
Oakland (15% Market Share) 73-73
New Orleans (15% Market Share) 74-74
Atlanta (14% Market Share) 75-75
Denver (14% Market Share) 76-76
Los Angeles (13% Market Share) 77-77
Baltimore/Washington (12% Market Share) 78-78
Chicago O'Hare (12% Market Share) 79-79
Tier 2 80-80
Seattle (11% Market Share) 81-81
Chicago Midway (9% Market Share) 82-82
San Diego (9% Market Share) 83-83
Washington Dulles (8% Market Share) 84-84
New York LaGuardia (8% Market Share) 85-85
Philadelphia (7% Market Share) 86-86
Dallas/Fort Worth (6% Market Share) 87-87
Cleveland (6% Market Share) 88-88
Part 2: Best Practices at European and Asian Airports 89-90
Oslo (64% Market Share) 91-91
Hong Kong (63% Market Share) 92-92
Narita (59% Market Share) 93-93
Zurich (47% Market Share) 94-94
Vienna (41% Market Share) 95-95
London Stansted (40% Market Share) 96-96
Paris Charles de Gaulle (40% Market Share) 97-97
Amsterdam (37% Market Share) 98-98
Munich (36% Market Share) 99-99
London Heathrow (36% Market Share) 100-100
Stockholm (34% Market Share) 101-101
Frankfurt (33% Market Share) 102-102
Geneva (28% Market Share) 103-103
Brussels (26% Market Share) 104-104
Dsseldorf (22% Market Share) 105-106
Part 1: Baggage Strategies for Local Originating Passengers 107-107
The Importance of Baggage-Handling Strategies 108-108
A Case Study in Baggage Check-in at a Downtown Terminal 109-111
Status of Other Downtown Check-in Terminals 112-116
Near-Airport Check-in Locations 117-118
Part 2: Integration of Ticketing and Baggage with Longer Distance Systems 119-119
Integration with National Systems: The GAO Study 120-121
Why Integrate an Airport with Longer Distance Ground Services? 122-124
Part 3: Evolving Strategies for Integrated Ticketing and Baggage 125-125
Las Vegas Strategies for Integration of Modal Services 126-126
Los Angeles International Airport to Union Station 127-127
Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station: A Case Study 128-130
Lessons Learned: Integration with National Systems 131-131
Documentation of Examples of Integrated Services 132-134
Characteristics of the Airport Ground Access Market 135-135
Demographic Characteristics of Air Travelers 136-137
Step 1: Decide What Information to Collect 138-138
Step 2: Select a Data Collection Method 139-140
Step 3: Determine the Sampling Frame and Sampling Method 141-141
Step 5: Summarize and Analyze the Results 142-142
Air Traveler Trip-End Densities Associated with Ground Transportation Markets 143-144
The Geography of Public Ground Transportation to Airports 145-146
A Hierarchy of Markets for Public Ground Transportation Services 147-147
Variation by Demographic Segment: Total Airport Market 148-148
Variation by Demographic Segment: Washington, D.C. 149-150
Applying the Four Market Segments: Looking for the Factor of Familiarity 151-151
Conclusion 152-152
The Need to Manage Services 153-153
Measures to Encourage Use of Public Transportation 154-155
Automated Traffic Monitoring and Management Programs 156-156
Open Access 157-157
Balancing Supply and Demand 158-158
Challenges of Introducing New Services 159-159
Competition and Enforcement 160-160
Bond Indenture 161-161
Airline Agreement 162-162
Sources of Funding 163-163
Federal Funding and Financial Oversight of Airports and Airport Access Projects 164-166
Environmental Implications of Federal Funding for Airport Access Projects 167-167
Factors That Influence Employee Use of Public Transportation 168-168
Transit Service Characteristics 169-170
Employee Characteristics 171-172
Comparative Comfort of Transit and Automobile 173-173
Availability, Cost, and Convenience of Parking at the Work Site 174-174
Extent and Adequacy of Transit Service Hours 175-175
Non-Flight Crew 176-176
Getting Information about Ground Access 177-177
Ground Access Information on the San Francisco Airport Website 178-180
Ground Access Information on the Portland (Oregon) Airport Website 181-181
Ground Access Information on the Boston Airport Website 182-182
Ground Access Information on the New York JFK Airport Website 183-184
Ground Access Information on the Atlanta Airport Website 185-185
Ground Access Information on the Amsterdam Airport Website 186-187
Ground Access Planning on the Narita Airport Website 188-189
Ground Access Information on the London Heathrow Airport Website 190-190
Ground Access Information on the Zurich Airport Website 191-191
The Baltimore/Washington International Airport Prototype Ground Access Module 192-192
Passenger Information Provided by Other Agencies 193-194
Conclusions 195-195
Step 2: Undertake the Program for Data Gathering and System Monitoring 196-196
Step 5: Manage the Airport to Encourage Higher Occupancy 197-197
Step 6: Present the Ground Access Services to the Traveler 198-198
References 199-200
Appendix - Abbreviations and Acronyms 201-202
Abbreviations used without definitions in TRB publications 203-203

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