TCRP Synthesis 96: Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification
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TCRP Synthesis 96:
Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification
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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 96: Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification examines the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North America and internationally.

TCRP Synthesis 96 updates TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection.

Issues address by TCRP Synthesis 96 include evasion rates, inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion.


  • Transportation — Public Transportation
  • Transportation — Administration and Management
  • Transportation — Finance

Publication Info

129 pages | 8.5 x 11

Table of Contents

skim chapter
TCRP Synthesis 96 Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification 1-1
Transportation Research Board 2011 Executive Committee 2-2
Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification 3-3
Transit Cooperative Research Program 4-4
The National Academies 5-5
TCRP Committee for Project J-7 6-6
Preface 7-8
Contents 9-10
Summary 11-14
Study Process and Technical Approach 15-17
Report Organization 18-19
Experiences with Proof-of-Payment Implementation 20-20
Measuring Fare Evasion 21-21
Managing Proof-of-Payment Within the Transit Organization 22-22
Fare Collection and Fare Evasion in the Media 23-23
Organizational and Personnel Aspects of the Fare Enforcement Function 24-24
Monitoring and Inspecting for Fare Payment 25-25
Measuring Performance 26-30
Legal Aspects and Adjudication 31-32
Proof-of-Payment Fare Collection Operations 33-34
Fare Media and Fare Purchase Options 35-35
Ticket Vending Machines 36-36
Transit Industry Pulse Regarding Proof-of-Payment Fare Collection 37-38
Buffalo, New York - Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) 39-42
Dallas, Texas - Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) 43-47
Los Angeles, California - Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA METRO) 48-54
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota - Metro Transit 55-60
New York City, New York - New York City Transit (NYCT) 61-65
Phoenix Arizona - Valley Metro Rail, Inc. (METRO LIGHT RAIL) 66-70
San Francisco, California - San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA, MUNI) 71-78
Summary of Case Study Operators 79-81
Summary: Survey of Proof-of-Payment Operators 82-82
Summary: Common Practices from Case Studies 83-83
Suggestions for Additional Research 84-85
APPENDIX A - Survey Instrument 92-105
APPENDIX B - Participating Agencies 106-107
APPENDIX C - Example of Statutory Provisions Concerning Fare Evasion Enforcement 108-111
APPENDIX D - Example Performance Report 112-112
APPENDIX E - Example of a Manual and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 113-126
APPENDIX F - Example of Enforcement/Inspector Job Description 127-127
Cover3 128-128
Cover4 129-129

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