Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States
View larger
  • Status: Final Book
Reducing the Odds:
Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States
Purchase Options
Purchase Options MyNAP members save 10% online. Login or Register



Thousands of HIV-positive women give birth every year. Further, because many pregnant women are not tested for HIV and therefore do not receive treatment, the number of children born with HIV is still unacceptably high. What can we do to eliminate this tragic and costly inheritance? In response to a congressional request, this book evaluates the extent to which state efforts have been effective in reducing the perinatal transmission of HIV. The committee recommends that testing HIV be a routine part of prenatal care, and that health care providers notify women that HIV testing is part of the usual array of prenatal tests and that they have an opportunity to refuse the HIV test. This approach could help both reduce the number of pediatric AIDS cases and improve treatment for mothers with AIDS.

Reducing the Odds will be of special interest to federal, state, and local health policymakers, prenatal care providers, maternal and child health specialists, public health practitioners, and advocates for HIV/AIDS patients. January


  • Health and Medicine — Children's Health
  • Health and Medicine — Public Health and Prevention

Publication Info

416 pages | 6 x 9
ISBN: 978-0-309-06286-2

Table of Contents

skim chapter
Front Matter i-xvi
Executive Summary 1-14
1 Introduction 15-20
2 Public Health Screening Programs 21-35
3 Descriptive Epidemiology of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV 36-44
4 Natural History, Detection, and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women and Newborns 45-53
5 Context of Services for Women and Children Affected by HIV/AIDS 54-67
6 Implementation and Impact of the Public Health Service Counseling and Testing Guidelines 68-108
7 Recommendations 109-133
References 134-144
Appendixes 145-146
A Committee and Staff Biographies 147-154
B Context of Services for Women and Children Affected by HIV/AIDS 155-189
C Workshop I Summary 190-202
D Workshop II Summary 203-235
E New York/New Jersey Site Visit Summary 236-251
F Alabama Site Visit Summary 252-259
G South Texas Site Visit Summary 260-270
H Florida Conference Summary 271-274
I HIV Testing and Perinatal Transmission: Thoughts from an HIV-Positive Mother 275-285
J Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing Among Women 15-44: Results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth 286-303
K Details of the Committee's Models and Assumptions 304-312
L Passing the Test: New York's Newborn HIV Testing Policy, 1987-1997 313-340
M Excerpts from the Ryan White CARE Act Amendments of 1996 341-346
N 1995 U.S. Public Health Service Recommendations for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Counseling and Testing for Pregnant Women 347-371
O Acronyms and Glossary 372-376
Index 377-397
Related Resources
Research Tools

Suggested Citation

Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Reducing the Odds: Preventing Perinatal Transmission of HIV in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999.

Import this citation to:

Copyright Information

The National Academies Press (NAP) has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's Rightslink service to offer you a variety of options for reusing NAP content. Through Rightslink, you may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Rightslink allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in the license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process. To request permission through Rightslink you are required to create an account by filling out a simple online form. The following list describes license reuses offered by the National Academies Press (NAP) through Rightslink:

  • Republish text, tables, figures, or images in print
  • Post on a secure Intranet/Extranet website
  • Use in a PowerPoint Presentation
  • Distribute via CD-ROM
  • Photocopy

Click here to obtain permission for the above reuses. If you have questions or comments concerning the Rightslink service, please contact:

Rightslink Customer Care
Tel (toll free): 877/622-5543
Tel: 978/777-9929

To request permission to distribute a PDF, please contact our Customer Service Department at 800-624-6242 for pricing.

To request permission to translate a book published by the National Academies Press or its imprint, the Joseph Henry Press, please click here to view more information.

Related Books more

More by the Institute of Medicine more