Recent and forecasted advances in microbiology, molecular biology, and analytical chemistry have made it timely to reassess the current paradigm of relying predominantly or exclusively on traditional bacterial indicators for all types of waterborne pathogens. Nonetheless, indicator approaches will still be required for the foreseeable future because it is not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.
This comprehensive report recommends the development and use of a tool box approach by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and others for assessing microbial water quality in which available indicator organisms (and/or pathogens in some cases) and detection method(s) are matched to the requirements of a particular application. The report further recommends the use of a phased, three-level monitoring framework to support the selection of indicators and indicator approaches.
Table of Contents
|1 Introduction and Historical Background||17-52|
|2 Health Effects Assessment||53-108|
|3 Ecology and Evolution of Waterborne Pathogens and Indicator Organisms||109-163|
|4 Attributes and Application of Indicators||164-195|
|5 New Biological Measurement Opportunities||196-242|
|6 A Phased Approach to Monitoring Microbial Water Quality||243-266|
|Appendix A: Emerging and Reemerging Waterborne Pathogens||267-272|
|Appendix B: Review of Previous Reports||273-286|
|Appendix C: Detection Technologies||287-307|
|Appendix D: National Research Council Board Membership and Staff||308-310|
|Appendix E: Committee Biographical Information||311-316|
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