LABORATORY CHEMICAL SAFETY SUMMARY: ACETONE

Substance

Acetone

(2-Propanone)

CAS 67-64-1

 

Formula

CH3COCH3

 

Physical Properties

Colorless liquid

bp 56 °C, mp -94 °C

Miscible with water

 

Odor

Characteristic pungent odor detectable at 33 to 700 ppm (mean = 130 ppm)

Vapor Density

2.0 (air = 1.0)

 

Vapor Pressure

180 mmHg at 20 °C

 

Flash Point

-18 °C

 

Autoignition Temperature

465 °C

 

Toxicity Data

LD50 oral (rat)

5800 mg/kg

 

LD50 skin (rabbit)

20,000 mg/kg

 

LC50 inhal (rat)

50,100 mg/m3

 

PEL (OSHA)

1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3)

 

TLV-TWA (ACGIH)

750 ppm

 

STEL (ACGIH)

1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3)

Major Hazards

Highly flammable.

Toxicity

The acute toxicity of acetone is low. Acetone is primarily a central nervous system depressant at high concentrations (greater than 12,000 ppm). Unacclimated volunteers exposed to 500 ppm acetone experienced eye and nasal irritation, but it has been reported that 1000 ppm for an 8-hour day produced no effects other than slight transient irritation to eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore there are good warning properties for those unaccustomed to working with acetone; however, frequent use of acetone seems to cause accommodation to its slight irritating properties. Acetone is practically nontoxic by ingestion. A case of a man swallowing 200 mL of acetone resulted in his becoming stuporous after 1 hour and then comatose; he regained consciousness 12 hour later. Acetone is slightly irritating to the skin, and prolonged contact may cause dermatitis. Liquid acetone produces moderate transient eye irritation.

Acetone has not been found to be carcinogenic in animal tests or to have effects on reproduction or fertility.



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