CHAPTER 2
EARTH SCIENCE

EARTH SCIENCE-CORE MATERIALS

2.1 Air and Weather. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993.

Grades: 1, 2 In Air and Weather, students monitor the weather, explore the properties of air, and construct devices that use moving air to function. Students monitor temperature, rainfall, wind, and clouds; they use a thermometer, a rain gauge, an anemometer, and a cloud window. They record their observations in a student weather journal and on a class weather calendar. They organize and graph class weather data collected over a period of 4 weeks. Students explore properties of air using plastic syringes and tubes; they find that air takes up space and builds up pressure when compressed. They construct parachutes, propellers, balloon rockets, gliders, pinwheels, streamers, wind socks, kites, and whirligigs to investigate the interaction of objects with moving air.

Air and Weather consists of 4 activities, requiring 8 to 10 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography.

The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit.

Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-1152-4), $101. Complete module, $495. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module.

2.2 Earth Materials. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993.

Grades: 3, 4 Earth Materials includes 4 sequential activities on observable characteristics of solid materials from the earth—namely, rocks and minerals. Students are involved in activities that challenge them to observe, compare, put together, take apart, and organize as they investigate simulated and real rocks. The activities include taking apart homemade rocks to investigate their composition; exploring the properties of four minerals (calcite, quartz, gypsum, and fluorite) and then seriating the minerals according to hardness; testing four rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) for the presence of calcite; sorting rocks and minerals; and identifying the minerals present in pink granite.

The 4 activities in Earth Materials require 7 weeks (about 12 class ses-



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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science CHAPTER 2 EARTH SCIENCE EARTH SCIENCE-CORE MATERIALS 2.1 Air and Weather. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 1, 2 In Air and Weather, students monitor the weather, explore the properties of air, and construct devices that use moving air to function. Students monitor temperature, rainfall, wind, and clouds; they use a thermometer, a rain gauge, an anemometer, and a cloud window. They record their observations in a student weather journal and on a class weather calendar. They organize and graph class weather data collected over a period of 4 weeks. Students explore properties of air using plastic syringes and tubes; they find that air takes up space and builds up pressure when compressed. They construct parachutes, propellers, balloon rockets, gliders, pinwheels, streamers, wind socks, kites, and whirligigs to investigate the interaction of objects with moving air. Air and Weather consists of 4 activities, requiring 8 to 10 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-1152-4), $101. Complete module, $495. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.2 Earth Materials. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 3, 4 Earth Materials includes 4 sequential activities on observable characteristics of solid materials from the earth—namely, rocks and minerals. Students are involved in activities that challenge them to observe, compare, put together, take apart, and organize as they investigate simulated and real rocks. The activities include taking apart homemade rocks to investigate their composition; exploring the properties of four minerals (calcite, quartz, gypsum, and fluorite) and then seriating the minerals according to hardness; testing four rock samples (granite, limestone, marble, and sandstone) for the presence of calcite; sorting rocks and minerals; and identifying the minerals present in pink granite. The 4 activities in Earth Materials require 7 weeks (about 12 class ses-

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "EARTH SCIENCE—CORE MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 4 of this guide. In addition, each annotation has a two-part entry number. For each entry number, the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2, and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication. Series title, or series acronym if commonly used. Authors (either individual names or organizational author). Name and location of developer (in parentheses), if different from publisher. Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Series Acronyms Following are acronyms of series titles in "Earth Science—Core Materials." (Series titles that are spelled out are not included in this list.) FOSS Full Option Science System STC Science and Technology for Children Price and Acquision Information Ordering information is presented in a block immediately below the annotation. Included are the follow: Prices of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units. The name of a principal publisher/supplier (not necessarily the sole source) for the items listed in the price category. (The address and phone and fax numbers for each publisher and supplier appear in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers.") An indication of the various sources from which one might obtain the required materials. sions) to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-0016-6), $101. Complete module: $319. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.3 Ecosystems. STC. Field-test ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Resources Center, 1992. Grade: 5 In Ecosystems, students learn about the interdependence of organisms and the natural environment by using 2-liter soda bottles to set up, observe, and experiment with two miniature ecosystems—an aquarium and a terrarium. After studying the two separate ecosystems, students connect them and observe the ecocolumn, noting any changes that may indicate an imbalance in the system. They read about aquatic and terrestrial organisms—plants, algae, fungi, bacteria, and animals—and pollution. They study habitat changes and conduct experiments simulating the effects of acid rain, road salt, and fertilizer. As a final activity, students in small groups investigate a real ecosystem in danger—the Chesapeake Bay. They read about the problems of the bay, analyze the situation from several points of view, propose possible solutions, and begin to grapple with the trade-offs involved in various solutions. Ecosystems is a 16-lesson unit that requires 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science annotated bibliography of additional resources, and information on maintaining live materials. A student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations accompanies the unit. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, $14.95. Student Activity Book, $3.50. Unit, $349.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.4 Landforms. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 5, 6 The Landforms module consists of 5 activities that introduce students to concepts of physical geography and mapping. Students first create a three-dimensional model of their school site and transfer information about the locations of landforms and structures in their model to a grid. This allows them to relate physical structures to representations on maps. They use stream tables to simulate the creation of landforms. Students then construct a three-dimensional foam model of an actual mountain, Mount Shasta; then they create a topographic map of the mountain and compare it to a topographic map of the same mountain from the U.S. Geological Survey. Landforms contains 5 multipart activities, requiring 18 class sessions over a 10-week period to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 5 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 07826-0065-4), $101. Complete module, $599. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.5 Measurement. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 3, 4 This module introduces students to metric measurement. They work in collaborative groups of four to learn the standard units used to measure length (meter), weight (gram), fluid volume (liter), and temperature (degree Celsius); they use appropriate tools to make measurements. Among the activities, students make and use meter tapes to measure objects and to make body comparisons. They use a balance and weights to weigh common objects and to investigate the water absorbency of a sponge. They use beakers, syringes, and graduated cylinders to measure the capacity of several containers. They use thermometers to measure and monitor temperatures, such as the rate of cooling of water when ice is added. Each activity concludes with applications of students' new knowledge and skills that give them experience and familiarity with the metric system. Measurement contains 4 multipart activities, requiring from 12 to 15 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Price: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-78260005-0), $101. Complete module, $599. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.6 Measuring Time. STC. (Developed by National Science Resources Center, Washington, D.C.) Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1994. Grade: 6 In Measuring Time, students explore timekeeping first by observing the natural cycles of the sun and moon and then by building and investigating mechanical devices designed to measure time. Activities include recording the length and position of shadows at different times of day, devising a calendar, and predicting and observing the phases of the moon. In other activities, students construct and experiment with sinking water clocks and pendulums, build and adjust a working clock escapement, and make a 1-minute timer. Throughout the unit, students are encouraged to develop an appreciation of advances over the centuries in measuring time. They record ideas, questions, and descriptions of their work in notebooks; they organize and report results in charts, tables, and graphs; and they discuss and analyze their experiences in small groups and with the class. Measuring Time is a 16-lesson module requiring 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, and an annotated bibliography. A student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations accompanies the unit. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assess-

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science ment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, $14.95. Student Activity Book, 83.50. Unit, $399.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.7 Pebbles, Sand, and Silt. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 1, 2 In Pebbles, Sand, and Silt, students develop skills such as observing, comparing, organizing, seriating, and inferring as they explore the properties of rocks and soil and the use of these substances in everyday life. They investigate several types of rocks (basalt, scoria, and tuff) and learn about their properties. Then they use a series of screens with different mesh sizes to separate a river rock mixture consisting of earth materials of different sizes. After learning how earth materials are used to construct objects, students put together and take apart different types of soil. Pebbles, Sand, and Silt contains 4 multipart activities, requiring about 25 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Price: Teachers Guide (ISBN 0-78261144-3), $101. Complete module, $465. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.8 Reading the Environment. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grades: 4, 5 In Reading the Environment, students search for, categorize, interpret, and analyze evidence which shows that changes in their environment are taking place or have taken place in the past. In the first half of the module, students examine and categorize changes in themselves, in their classroom, and in the schoolyard. They designate two small outdoor plots that they examine over time for evidence of change. They use drawings, rubbings, and words to record their observations on a large Class Change Chart and learn to make connections between cause and effect. In the second half of the module, students expand their concept of change over time to a geologic scale. They create and use several extended time lines, examine and sort rocks, learn about the formation and disintegration of rocks, and carry out weathering and erosion experiments. They also explore the formation of fossils and the kind of evidence fossils can provide about changes that took place long ago. Reading the Environment is a 6-to-8 week module that can be completed in a minimum of 22 to 24 sessions. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, 17 Learning Experiences, reproducible masters for student sheets, and annotated lists of additional resources to use with the module. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089292-177-3), $65. Materials kit, $324. (Prices differ in California, Nevada, and Indiana.) Publisher/supplier : Optical Data Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.9 Rocks and Minerals. STC. Field-test ed. Washington, D.C.: National Science Resources Center, 1994. Grade: 3 In Rocks and Minerals, students investigate common rocks and the predominant minerals found in them. After sorting and describing rocks by various physical features, they read about how rocks are formed and how they change as a result of heat or pressure. Students perform a series of physical and chemical field tests that geologists use to identify properties of minerals, and they construct mineral profile sheets to use in making a ''minerals field guide." Students combine information from another field guide with the knowledge and skills they have acquired to identify 12 minerals by name and to identify 3 mystery minerals. Finally, they learn about uses for rocks and minerals such as basalt, granite, quartz, and fluorite. Rocks and Minerals is a 16-lesson module requiring 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, and blackline masters of student record sheets and mineral identification cards. A student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations accompanies the unit. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, $14.95. Student Activity Book, $3.50. Unit, $563.00. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.10 Soils. STC. (Developed by National Science Resources Center, Washington, D.C.) Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1995. Grade: 2 In the Soils module, students use standard techniques of soil science to investigate basic soil components and their properties. They examine soil samples with a hand lens, make soil smears, and investigate the plasticity of moist soils. Students mix soil components (sand, clay, and humus) with water and observe the immediate and long-term results of shaking the mixtures. They explore the porosity and water retention of soils. Students then apply and interpret these same tests to characterize an unfamiliar soil mixture. The unit includes a 5-week composting experiment, as well as planting experiments with different types of soil. In a final activity, students plan and carry out investigations of local soil. Soils is a 16-lesson module requiring 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, blackline masters for student record sheets, and tips on using redworms in the classroom. An optional consumable notebook for students, My Soils Book, includes most of the record sheets and the three reading selections used in this unit. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide, $14.95. Consumable Student Notebook, $2.00. Unit, $349.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials : Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.11 Solar Energy. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 5, 6 This module features 4 multipart activities focused on related aspects of solar energy and culminating in its use in solar homes. Students chart changes in the size and position of shadows as the relative position of the sun changes. They investigate temperature changes in equal amounts of water, sand, dry soil, and wet soil when the sun shines on them; they relate the temperature differences to the properties of the materials. Students then conduct controlled experiments to test the effect of three variables on the collection of solar energy by solar water heaters. (The variables are the color of the solar collector, its being covered or uncovered, and its surface area.) Finally, students assemble model solar homes, looking for the most efficient way to heat them. Throughout the unit students organize data on charts and graphs to establish relationships between variables. Solar Energy contains 4 multipart activities, requiring about 12 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, the 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-78260087-5), $101. Complete module, $415. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.12 There Is No Away. Insights. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, 1994. Grade: 6 There Is No Away introduces students to the subjects of waste production, disposal, and control, and focuses on solid waste disposal and water pollution. The first half of the module develops students' awareness of the amount and variety of trash people generate. Students collect and analyze a day's waste (collected on the school premises) and explore the schoolyard for manufactured and natural waste materials. Students then design and set up controlled experiments to find out what happens to organic and inorganic waste in a sanitary landfill. They examine how the soil in, around, and under a landfill can influence the quality of groundwater. In the second half of the module, they design and construct a model sanitary landfill, investigate the steps involved in purifying water, and develop ideas for alternative packaging and recycling. There Is No Away is organized in 16 Learning Experiences that can be done in a minimum of 27 sessions over about 6 to 8 weeks. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 Learning Experiences, reproducible masters for student sheets, and annotated lists of additional resources to use with the module. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089292-181-1), $65. Materials kit, $285. (Prices differ in California, Nevada, and Indiana.) Publisher/supplier : Optical Data. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.13 Water. FOSS. (Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, Calif.) Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp., 1993. Grades: 3, 4 In this module consisting of 4 multipart activities, students explore water in all its forms: they investigate surface tension, freezing, expansion, density, evaporation, condensation, water quality, and natural processes of water recycling. Students first explore the properties of water, its behavior on different surfaces, how to change its surface tension, and how gravity affects the rate of flow down an inclined plane. Students then observe the properties of water as it is heated, cooled, and frozen; they experiment with evaporation and condensation; and they test various samples of water for the presence of dissolved calcium and magnesium (that is, they test water hardness) and see what happens when water runs over earth materials. The 4 multipart activities in Water require 19 or 20 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, 4 individual activity folios, duplication masters (in English and Spanish) for student sheets, and an annotated bibliography. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-78260440-9), $101. Complete module, $469. Publisher/supplier: Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corp. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in module. 2.14 Weather. STC. (Developed by National Science Resources Center, Washington, D.C.) Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply Co., 1995. Grade: 1 The unit Weather introduces children to 4 important features of weather: wind, temperature, cloud cover, and precipitation. Young students gather information about the weather with their senses and with simple weather instruments. They learn to read a Fahrenheit thermometer; they construct and interpret a wind scale to estimate the speed of wind; they make a rain gauge to collect and measure rainfall; and they observe clouds and categorize them in 3 basic groups. Throughout the unit children use a class weather calendar, along with other charts and graphs, to record and interpret data about the weather. Students conduct an experiment to investigate the effect colors can have on thermometer readings, and they relate their findings to the color of clothing they might choose to wear in specific types of weather. They also experiment with ways that different types of fabric respond to water, drawing conclusions about which fabric would keep them driest on a rainy day. Weather consists of 16 lessons requiring 8 weeks to complete. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, and supplementary information on the development of the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. An appendix with the Celsius version of all record sheets is also included. An optional consumable student notebook (available in English and Spanish) includes all the record sheets and student instructions contained in the teacher's guide. This module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. Materials are available in a kit. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 089278-713-9), 814.95. Consumable Student Notebook (ISBN 0-89278714-7), $2.00. Unit, 8379.95. Publisher/supplier : Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science EARTH SCIENCE-SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS 2.15 Air. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1989. Grades: 2-4 The module Air introduces students to the basic properties of air and how it behaves. During the unit, students observe that air takes up space, that it has volume and can be moved and divided, that it expands when heated and contracts when cooled, and that it exerts pressure on other substances. Hands-on activities in the unit include constructing parachutes to discover the effects of air resistance; building wind gauges to measure wind speed; and making and flying paper airplanes to test students' knowledge of air movement, pressure, and resistance. This module includes an overview, a glossary, evaluation activities, and reproducible masters for student worksheets. The 9 activities of Air require 12 class sessions to complete. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-752-1), $9.95. Kit, $217.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.16 Air, Sun and Water: How Weather Works. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1993. Grade: 1 In Air, Sun and Water, children learn about these components of weather, which they discover can be observed and measured. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) weather is composed of the conditions of the surrounding air; (2) the sun heats the air, which moves, changes direction, and moves ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "EARTH SCIENCE—SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 4 of this guide. In addition, each annotation has a two-part entry number. For each entry number, the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2, and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication. Series title, or series acronym if commonly used. Authors (either individual names or organizational author). Name and location of developer (in parentheses), if different from publisher. Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Series Acronyms Following are acronyms of series titles in "Earth Science—Supplementary Materials." (Series titles that are spelled out are not included in this list.) DSM Delta Science Module GEMS Great Explorations in Math and Science STAR Science Technology and Reading Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information is presented in a block immediately below the annotation. Included are the following: Prices of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units. The name of a principal publisher/supplier (not necessarily the sole source) for the items listed in the price category. (The address and phone and fax numbers for each publisher and supplier appear in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers.") An indication of the various sources from which one might obtain the required materials.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science other things; and (3) the sun heats water and makes it move through the water cycle. Lessons in this unit include students reading books and taking a video field trip to explore weather, recording weather observations, observing and comparing different rates of evaporation, and discussing climate patterns. Air, Sun and Water consists of 17 lessons of 35 to 40 minutes each. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59026203-3), $20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-26135-5), $6.50. Complete unit, $375.00. Consumables kit, $62.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.17 Convection: A Current Event. GEMS. Alan Gould. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1988. Grades: 6+ Students explore the physical phenomenon of convection and generalize their findings to understand wind patterns in Convection : A Current Event. The teacher's guide introduces the concept of convection and then offers 3 sessions: Observing Convection in Water, Getting the Whole Picture, and Convection and Wind. In the first session, students use food coloring to trace convection currents in water. In the second session, they apply their knowledge to guide an imaginary submarine through ocean currents generated near a hot volcanic vent. In the third session, the teacher presents 3 demonstrations to show that convection occurs in gases as well as in liquids, and students apply what they have learned to explain house heating and to predict wind patterns. Each session in Convection: A Current Event is illustrated, requires 30 to 60 minutes, and includes detailed instructions for planning and conducting the activities. Reproducible masters of student worksheets are included. Price: $10. Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.18 Digging into Dinosaurs. NatureScope. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1989. Grades: K-5 Digging into Dinosaurs uses activities involving games, songs, stories, drawings, and drama to introduce students and teachers to these extinct animals and the world in which they lived. Fossil evidence forms the basis for information provided by the guide. In classroom and playground lessons that integrate science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, art, music, and physical education, students from kindergarten to the intermediate grades learn the comparative sizes of dinosaurs, how they were named, and what their lives might have been like. Digging into Dinosaurs contains 20 lessons organized in 5 chapters; a sixth chapter provides art and craft ideas. Teachers may choose single activities or teach each chapter as a unit. Copycat pages supplement the activities and provide games, puzzles, and worksheets. Price: $7.95. Publisher/supplier: National Wildlife Federation. Mater ials: Available locally. 2.19 Dinosaur Classification. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1989. Grades: 3-5 Dinosaur Classification introduces students to methods of studying prehistoric animals. They first create a timeline on the history of the earth and place drawings of dinosaurs and other organisms on it. During the unit, students examine the role of bones and footprints as fossil evidence. They collect and graph data showing the relationship between the length of stride and height and then apply these findings to estimate the height of dinosaurs. Students compare the relative sizes of dinosaurs, use data to hypothesize about dinosaur habitats and behaviors, and devise and use their own dinosaur classification system. Dinosaur Classification contains 4 activities, requiring 12 class sessions. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Reproducible masters for student worksheets are provided in the teacher's guide. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-754-8), $9.95. Kit, $170.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.20 Earth, Moon, and Stars. GEMS. Cary I. Sneider. Reprinted with revisions. Berkeley. Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1989. Grades: 5-6+ In Earth, Moon, and Stars, students investigate the following: ancient models of the universe, the earth's shape, gravity, the moon and its phases, star clocks, and star maps. They compare four ancient models of the earth to learn how each one explained common events seen daily in the sky. They use a questionnaire to launch a discussion about the shape of the earth and gravity. Students investigate the

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science phases of the moon and use a model to explain the moon's monthly cycle of phases. They use star clocks and star maps. Earth, Moon, and Stars contains 6 activities requiring a total of 16 sessions (10 to 90 minutes each). The guide includes background information, a suggested time frame, a list of materials, ideas for preparation, step-by-step directions, and reproducible student worksheets. Price: $10. Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.21 Earth Movements. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: 3-5 In Earth Movements, which focuses on the earth's tectonic plates and convection currents, students develop a general understanding of the dynamics of earth movements. Through modeling, they investigate the consequences of plate movement—seafloor spreading, mountain building, volcanism, and earthquakes. They construct and erupt model volcanoes and explore reasons for earthquakes. Earth Movements contains 10 activities, requiring 12 sessions of 30 minutes each to complete. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. The teacher's guide includes reproducible masters for student worksheets. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-755-6), $9.95. Kit, $179.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.22 Erosion. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1994. Grades: 5-6+ In Erosion, students investigate how wind, glaciers, and especially water cause erosion of the earth's surfaces and how the effects of erosion can be reduced. Students construct a stream table to test the effects of several variables on the process of erosion. The variables include vegetation, slope, water volume, and type of material being eroded. They compare the erosion and deposition characteristics of several types of earth materials; they simulate the erosive effect of wave action along a shoreline; and they test the effects of wind on sand before and after building a model windbreak. A detailed lesson is provided for each of the 12 activities, which require approximately 15 class sessions. The teacher's guide includes an overview, a list of objectives for each activity, a planning schedule, background information, and preparation and materials management strategies. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-117-5), $24.95. Kit, $270.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.23 Geology: The Active Earth. NatureScope. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1988. Grades: K-5 Geology: The Active Earth is an interdisciplinary investigation of the nature of the earth. Students explore what the earth is made of, how old it is, how it was formed, and how it continues to be formed. Classroom and outdoor activities, including simple investigations, stories, discussions, modeling, and creative writing, focus on rocks and minerals, landforms, fossil records, the structure of the earth, and earth movements such as quakes and volcanoes. The unit's activities, suitable for use in kindergarten to the intermediate grades, integrate science with geography, mathematics, language arts, and art. Geology: The Active Earth contains 18 lessons organized in 5 chapters. Teachers may choose single activities or teach each chapter as a unit. Copycat pages supplement the activities and include ready-to-copy maps, games, puzzles, and worksheets. Price: $7.95. Publisher/supplier: National Wildlife Federation. Materials : Available locally. 2.24 How Landforms Change: Exploring Earth's Crust. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Brooklyn Children's Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1995. Grade: 5 In How Landforms Change: Exploring Earth's Crust, students learn that as structures of the earth's crust break down, new structures form. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) the outermost of earth's 3 layers is the crust, where all landforms are found; (2) movement within the earth's crust builds and changes landforms; and (3) physical and chemical weathering change landforms. Activities in this unit include collecting and examining various rock samples, making a model of the earth's crustal plates and simulating a plate collision, and building a seismograph. Other activities include observing the way plants affect the earth and designing a probe to explore the planets in another solar system. How Landforms Change: Exploring Earth's Crust is a 17-lesson unit. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0590-27722-7), $27. Student Book, $10. Complete unit, $450. Consumables kit, $76. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.25 The Moons of Jupiter. GEMS. Debra Sutter, Cary Sneider, Alan Gould, and others. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1993. Grades: 4-6+ In this unit, students learn about the exciting world of planets and space exploration by studying Jupiter and its moons. During the unit's 5 activities, students track Jupiter's moons, investigate the creation of craters, create a scale model of the Jupiter system using their schoolyard, go on a tour of the Jupiter system as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft, and design and build model space stations. Students are introduced to the work of Galileo and other early astronomers. They have the opportunity to observe photographs of Jupiter and its moons and to discuss and record information; they compare the moons' features with other, more familiar things; and they venture possible ideas, explanations, or conclusions based on what they have seen. In all of the activities, students create and use models of various kinds. The Moons of Jupiter requires about 5 to 7 sessions of 40 to 50 minutes each. This thorough guide contains summary outlines, background information, detailed lesson plans, literature connections, activity sheets, and suggestions for additional resources. A set of 23 slides is included with the teacher's guide. Price: $28 (ISBN 0-912511-84-2). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.26 River Cutters. GEMS. Jefferey Kaufmann, Robert C. Knott, and Lincoln Bergman. Reprinted with revisions. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1992. Grades: 6+ River Cutters gives students a sense of events in a river system over time. The unit includes not only earth science and ecology but social studies. Concepts of erosion, pollution, toxic waste, and human manipulation of rivers are introduced. Students first create their own model rivers, observing and recording information about them. During the first 4 sessions of the unit, they acquire geological terminology and begin to understand rivers as dynamic, ever-changing systems. During 3 optional sessions, students have the opportunity to explore the relationship between the angle of the river models and the events that occur in the developing river, experimenting with dams and modeling problems in toxic waste disposal. Students develop skills such as designing models, experimenting, recording data, communicating, and decision making. It is important that diatomaceous earth be used and that teachers make a few trial runs with the river model prior to the class session. The first 4 sessions in River Cutters require 30 to 45 minutes each; the 3 optional sessions require 45 to 60 minutes each. Each session's lesson plan includes an overview, a materials list, and detailed instructions (including diagrams) for preparing and for conducting the activity. Background information and a reproducible master of the student data sheet are included. Price: $10 (ISBN 0-912511-67-2). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.27 Rocks and Minerals. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1994. Grades: 5, 6 In this module students investigate the properties and uses of rocks and minerals and are introduced to some of the methods geologists use to gather data about the materials that make up the earth. Students describe minerals in terms of properties such as luster, hardness, and streak color. They apply their knowledge in inferring some of the mineral constituents of rocks. During the unit, students develop a list of how different rocks and minerals have been used by humans through time. They construct three-dimensional models of crystals, grow crystals, and take a geological field trip to gather and interpret data on rocks and minerals. Rocks and Minerals includes an overview, a list of objectives for each activity, a planning schedule, background information, and preparation and materials management strategies. A detailed lesson plan is provided for each of the 12 activities, which require 20 class sessions of 30 to 50 minutes each. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-101-9), $24.95. Kit, $259.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.28 Rocks and Soil: How Weather and Other Forces Change the Earth. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1993. Grade: 2 Students learn that the earth is changing in Rocks and Soil . The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) products form as the earth changes, (2) certain processes and forces cause the earth to change, and (3) the earth changes over a long period of time. Lessons include students observing the characteristics of rocks, demonstrating how rocks form in water, constructing a model to simulate an earthquake, comparing soil samples, and building an erosion model. Rocks and Soil is a 17-lesson unit. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59026209-2), $20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-26141-X), $6.50. Complete unit, $375.00. Consumables kit, $71.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.29 Soil. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1989. Grades: 2-4 In the module Soil, students discover how soil is formed, examine soil components and compare types of soil, investigate soil erosion and pollution, and begin to understand the importance of soil to plants and animals. Activities in the unit include students observing earthworms and discovering their role in cultivating soil, collecting and examining soil samples, and simulating erosion of soil by wind and water. Soil consists of 10 activities requiring 12 class sessions of 30 minutes each to complete. A detailed lesson plan is provided for each activity. Reproducible masters of student data sheets are included. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-761-0), $9.95. Kit, $210.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.30 Solar System. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: 4-6 In Solar System, students build graphic and physical models to help them determine the relative sizes of the sun and the planets in the solar system and the distances between them. Activities use one scale for the relative sizes of the sun and the planets and another scale to model the relative distances in the solar system. Students also use models to interpret data about moon phases and solar and lunar eclipses. Solar System is a 10-activity module requiring about 12 class sessions of 40 minutes each. The unit includes a brief module overview, a section on evaluation, a glossary, and blackline masters. The 2-page activities provide teaching strategies and a list of materials needed. Prices: Teachers Guide (ISBN 087504-763-7), $9.95. Kit, $249.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.31 The Solar System: How the Sun, Moon, and Planets Move. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, N.Y.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1995. Grade: 5 In The Solar System: How the Sun, Moon, and Planets Move, students learn that our solar system and the bodies that make it up are in constant motion. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) our solar system includes the sun and the objects that move around it; (2) the relative motions of the sun, earth, and earth's moon result in changes on earth; and (3) earth's position within the solar system helps make the planet uniquely able to support life as we know it. Examples of lessons in this unit include making a sundial to observe how the sun's changing position relates to our sense of time; using a ball and string to model the movement of a planet around the sun and to demonstrate how gravity holds the solar system together; using a model to observe how sunlight and the moon's orbit create the lunar phases; and comparing conditions on various planets. The Solar System is a 17-lesson unit requiring 30- to 45-minute class sessions. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59027627-1), $20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-27626-3), $6.50. Complete unit, S 375.00. Publisher/supplier : Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.32 STAR Geology Lab. STAR. Washington, D.C.: Reading Is Fundamental, 1993. Grades: 4-6 In STAR Geology Lab, a story about the discovery of a geode by a character in a fictional classroom provides a backdrop and source of background information for a series of geology lab explorations. Students first conduct a rock-hunting expedition around the schoolyard. To identify the rocks, they test them for the presence of carbonates and conduct a streak (color) test. They learn how sedimentary rocks are formed by making artificial sandstone. To simulate core sampling—a technique used by scientists to study the geological history of an area—students make multilayered sandwiches and use straws to extract a "core sample." Students use clay models of folding rock layers to show how movement in the earth's crust creates mountains. They use large blocks of ice to simulate glacial action and its effect on land. Finally,

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science students make molds and casts to simulate the process of fossilization. Students examine the format and features of nature guides as a model for writing their own geology field guides. Examples of interdisciplinary activities include developing recipes for a geological cookbook, creating sand paintings, and role-playing specialists in geology-related fields. The guide provides a list of resources including books, computer software, and audiovisual materials. Prices: Teacher's Guide, 821.90. Mentor's Guide, 83.90. Publisher/supplier : Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally. 2.33 Sunshine and Shadows. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1988. Grades: K, 1 Sunshine and Shadows introduces students to some of the characteristics of light as they record the shape and movement of shadows. They learn to observe, describe, manipulate, and identify shadows. Using the sun, lamps, and flashlights as light sources, children learn that the shape, size, and location of a shadow depend on the position of the light source relative to the object that casts the shadow. Sunshine and Shadows contains 8 activities, which require 12 sessions of 15 to 35 minutes to complete. Each activity includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Reproducible masters of student worksheets are provided. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-719-X), $9.95. Kit, $185.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.34 The Universe: Exploring Stars, Constellations, and Galaxies. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Houston Museum of Natural Science, Houston, Tex.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1995. Grades: 6+ In The Universe: Exploring Stars, Constellations, and Galaxies, students learn that the stars and other bodies that make up the universe are constantly changing. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) stars can be studied from earth using direct and indirect evidence; (2) stars have predictable life cycles and exist in groups; and (3) the universe is constantly expanding. Students use a sampling technique to discover how it is possible to estimate the number of stars in the sky. They observe why constellations change position over a year, investigate how parallax is used to measure the distance from earth to the stars, and build a model to show how the universe is expanding. The Universe is a 17-lesson unit requiring about 22 class sessions of 45 minutes each. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59027771-5), $27. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-27770-7), $10. Complete unit, $450. Consumables kit, $70. Publisher/supplier : Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.35 Using Land: How People Change the Structures of Land. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Science Center of Connecticut, West Hartford, Conn.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic, 1995. Grade: 3 In Using Land: How People Change the Structures of Land, students learn that land is a natural resource that is changed by natural processes and by human activities. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) weathering, erosion, and deposition break down landforms and build new ones; (2) humans have increased the rates of weathering and erosion by using the land; and (3) people can use land in ways that minimize damage and can partially repair damage already done. Lessons in this unit include students testing the effects of acid on a rock and making inferences about weathering from their own observations; modeling how rain moves weathered material down mountains and carves water channels; making a model of a delta to observe how the deposition of eroded material builds new landforms; and planning and building a model of a community designed to use land wisely. Using Land: How People Change the Structures of Land is a 17-lesson unit. The conceptual goals are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59027635-2), $20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-27634-4), $6.50. Complete unit, $375.00. Consumables kit, 872.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.36 Using Water: How You Use and Change Water. Scholastic Science Place. (Developed in cooperation with Orlando Science Center, Orlando, Fla.) New York, N.Y.: Scholastic 1993. Grade: 2 In Using Water: How You Use and Change Water, students learn that water is a natural resource that people use and change in various ways. The unit's lessons are grouped in 3 subconcepts: (1) water is found in various forms in the environment; (2) water is a basic necessity of life and a resource for many human activities; and (3) most human activities affect water quality. Lessons in this unit include students making a solar still to see how salt water can become freshwater, keeping a water-use diary, building a model of a water tunnel, making a model of a septic tank to see how wastewater is removed from homes, and testing the effectiveness of water filters. Using Water is a 17-lesson unit, requiring 35- to 50-minute class sessions. The conceptual goals of the unit are presented in the lesson-by-lesson story line in the teacher's guide. Each lesson also includes background information; a complete lesson plan, including suggestions for assessing performance and integrating the curriculum; and a list of the print, video, and software support materials required for the lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 0-59026212-2), $20.70. Student Book (ISBN 0-590-26144-4), $6.50. Complete unit, $375.00. Consumables kit, $71.00. Publisher/supplier: Scholastic. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in unit. 2.37 Water Cycle. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1989. Grades: 4, 5 Students learn about the water cycle from clouds to sea level in the 7 activities of this unit. They build models to simulate evaporation, condensation, and precipitation, observing and describing the continuous recycling of water. Students look at evaporation in the classroom and then in an outdoor puddle. Collecting water released from the leaves of plants through the process of transpiration, they focus on how plants give off water vapor. Students design and build a water cycle chamber to observe evaporation and condensation in a closed system. Each of the 12 class sessions (requiring 40 minutes each) includes a vocabulary list, a list of materials needed, preparation steps, teaching suggestions, and reinforcement activities. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-764-5), $9.95. Kit, $218.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.38 Weather Forecasting. DSM. Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1995. Grades: 5, 6 In Weather Forecasting, students make weather observations and collect weather-related data and information that they display on a weather station they construct. Students explore how collecting data on temperature, rainfall, and wind helps them forecast the weather. Through participation in the activities in this unit, students are able to relate barometric pressure readings to weather conditions. They learn to code weather information and to plot weather fronts and discover the usefulness of tracking areas of similar air pressure and temperature on a weather map. Students learn the conditions necessary for clouds to form, and begin to associate specific types of clouds with specific types of weather conditions. Weather Forecasting includes 12 activities that require about 14 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide includes a module overview, a list of objectives for each activity, a planning schedule, background information, and preparation and materials management strategies. A complete lesson plan is provided for each lesson. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 087504-123-X), $24.95. Kit, $240.00. Publisher/supplier: Delta Education. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.39 Wild About Weather. NatureScope. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation, 1989. Grades: K-4 Wild About Weather provides background information and activity ideas for an interdisciplinary introduction to the causes, kinds, and impact of weather. Students from kindergarten to intermediate grades engage in experiments, games, and simulations as they investigate how weather phenomena happen, how weather affects the earth and its inhabitants, and how meteorologists predict the weather. Wild About Weather includes 27 lessons organized in 5 chapters; a sixth chapter provides art and craft ideas. Teachers may choose single activities or teach each chapter as a unit. Copycat pages supplement the activities and provide maps, games, puzzles, and worksheets. Price: $7.95 (ISBN 0-945051-45-X). Publisher/supplier: National Wildlife Federation. Materials: Available locally.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science EARTH SCIENCE-SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN ''EARTH SCIENCE—SCIENCE ACTIVITY BOOKS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books in chapters 1 through 4 of this guide. In addition, each annotation has a two-part entry number. For each entry number, the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2, and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Materials, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication. Series tile, or series acronym if commonly used. Authors (either individual names or organizational author). Name and location of developer (in parentheses), if different from publisher. Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication. Series Acronyms Following are acronyms of series titles in "Earth Science—Science Activity Books." (Series titles that are spelled out are not included in this list.) AIMS Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science CESI Council for Elementary Science International NSTA/FEMA National Science Teachers Association/Federal Emergency Management Agency Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information is presented in a block immediately below the annotation. Included are the following: Prices of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units. The name of a principal publisher/supplier (not necessarily the sole source) for the items listed in the price category. (The address and phone and fax numbers for each publisher and supplier appear in appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers.") An indication of the various sources from which one might obtain the required materials. 2.40 Adventures With Rocks and Minerals: Geology Experiments for Young People. Adventures with Science. Lloyd H. Barrow. Hillside, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 1991. Grades: 4, 5 Adventures With Rocks and Minerals: Geology Experiments for Young People is a collection of 30 questions and experiments designed to demonstrate the properties of rocks and minerals and their relation to environmental concerns such as erosion, earthquakes, acid rain, and water pollution. Activities for home or school include the following: using a nail file to determine the relative hardness of minerals, growing crystals, using a milk carton filled with soil to test how slope affects soil erosion, and using white vinegar and radish seeds to explore effects of acid rain on plants. Each activity in this guide includes a materials list, procedure, observation questions, a discussion, and suggestions of other investigations. Price: $16.95 (ISBN 0-89490-263-6). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.41 Air and Water. Prepared by Museum To Go Resource Center. Philadelphia, Pa.: Franklin Institute, 1988. Grades: 2-4 During the 6 activities in Air and Water, students answer some fundamental scientific questions. They explore the following topics: (1) what air is and how we know it is there, (2) how air and water are important to living things, (3) how water is like other liquids. (4) how we know what will sink and what will float, (5) how salt water affects plant growth, and (6) how air

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science can be used to do work. Activities include students making pinwheels, comparing the germination of wet and dry seeds both with and without air, comparing the properties of water and Kool-Aid, experimenting to determine the effects of freshwater and salt water on the growth of bean seeds, and demonstrating which objects will float in water. Each activity in Air and Water features a teacher's page and several student pages, which include instructions for setting up and conducting the activity, questions, diagrams, and data sheets. Prices: Complete kit, $199.00. Consumables kit, $82.50. Publisher/supplier : Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.42 The Amateur Meteorologist: Explorations and Investigations. Amateur Science Series. H. Michael Mogil and Barbara G. Levine. New York, N.Y.: Franklin Watts, 1993. Grades: 4-6+ In the activities of The Amateur Meteorologist: Explorations and Investigations, students build their own weather instruments from readily available materials. Other investigations in this activity and resource book on weather observing and forecasting introduce skills needed to identify clouds, to read weather maps, to calculate dew point and relative humidity, and to determine windchill and degree-days. Useful background information is also included on the water cycle, cloud formation, sun and seasons, pressure and wind, and stormy weather. This beginners guide to meteorology features numerous photographs and charts. Price: $19 (ISBN 0-531-11045-1). Publisher/supplier: Franklin Watts. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.43 Blue Planet. Carolyn E. Schmidt. Washington, D.C.: National Air and Space Museum, Office of Education, 1990. Grades: 5-6+ Looking at earth from space provides students with a unique perspective in Blue Planet, an activity book designed to be used in conjunction with the IMAX film of the same name, produced by the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. The information, activities, and resources in the book cover many environmental and earth science topics, from earthquakes to groundwater filtration to solar heating. This varied selection offers teachers of students in grades 3-12 a wide range of resources from which to choose. Many of the activities are designed to develop students' observational skills, especially with regard to the changing nature of the earth's environment. The guide lists 40 locations where Blue Planet can be seen. Price: Free to educators in response to request on school letterhead. Publisher/supplier: National Air and Space Museum. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.44 Earthquakes: A Teacher's Package for K-6. NSTA/FEMA Earthquake Curriculum. National Science Teachers Association. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. Grades: K-6 Earthquakes: A Teacher's Package for K-6 offers a cross-curricular approach to the study of these events. Copiously illustrated, this teacher's manual contains dozens of activities under 6 unit headings: (1) Defining an Earthquake, (2) Why and Where Earthquakes Occur, (3) Physical Results of Earthquakes, (4) Measuring Earthquakes, (5) Recognizing Earthquakes, and (6) Earthquake Safety and Survival. The units are intended to be used in order. Activities include using a hard-boiled egg to simulate the layers of the earth, constructing models of three types of faults, simulating an earthquake using wooden sticks and coffee grounds, and practicing proper reactions to an earthquake. Each of the first 5 units in Earthquakes includes background information, lessons, and activities for each of 3 grade levels: K-2, 3-4, and 5-6, as well as master pages that may be reproduced for transparencies, handouts, and worksheets. Prices: Single copy free to educators when requested from FEMA on school letterhead; $17.95 through National Science Teachers Association. Publisher/supplier: Federal Emergency Management Agency. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.45 Earth, Sun and Moon: Just Passing Time. Prepared by Museum To Go Resource Center. Philadelphia, Pa.: Franklin Institute, 1988. Grades: 5-6+ Earth, Sun and Moon: Just Passing Time examines the positions of the earth, sun, and moon in relation to one another. The unit's 8 activities also focus on the natural movements of the earth and moon relative to the sun and to each other and investigate how our concept of time corresponds to these movements. Activities include students using a model of the earth and a flashlight to simulate the earth's rotation and resulting daylight and darkness. They simulate circular and elliptical orbits as well as the earth revolving around the sun. Students make a moon phase calendar and construct a model of the three bodies to demonstrate their relative positions and to show the difference between rotation and revolution. Each activity in the unit features a teacher's page and several student pages, which include instructions for

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science setting up and conducting the activity, questions, diagrams, and student data sheets. Prices: Complete kit, $225.00. Consumables kit, 78.00. Publisher/supplier : Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Materials: Materials available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.46 Exploring Space: Using Seymour Simon's Astronomy Books in the Classroom. Barbara Bourne and Wendy Saul. New York, N.Y.: Morrow Junior Books, 1994. Grades: 5, 6 Exploring Space: Using Seymour Simon's Astronomy Books in the (Classroom contains about 50 space-related activities that build on information in astronomy books by Seymour Simon and other prominent authors of children's nonfiction books. Each activity has a different theme, such as magnetic storms on the sun, black holes, or developing a space quiz. In addition to experiments, this guide for teachers and parents proposes topics for writing assignments and discussions and suggests titles for further reading. Teachers are encouraged to select from among the activities and to encourage their students to amend and refine them. Striking, full-color photographs and useful diagrams appear throughout the guide. Price: $9.95 (ISBN 0-688-12723-1). Publisher/supplier: Morrow Junior Books. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.47 Finding Your Way: Navigation Activities from the Exploratorium. Peter Weiss and the staff of the Exploratorium. San Francisco, Calif.: The Exploratorium, 1992. Grades: 4-6+ Inspired by an exhibit at the Exploratorium museum in San Francisco celebrating "the amazing human ability to get from here to there," Finding Your Way contains sections on finding north, making maps, and orienting oneself on the planet. Activities include the following: students use a dial watch and the sun to find true north and then make and use a magnetic compass to find magnetic north; they make a clinometer to measure the height of an object, then use a "shrinking tower" scale to determine how far away the object is; they measure and map a hill in three dimensions; they use the North Star and a clinometer to measure latitude; and they use a north-south line and a time-zone table to determine longitude. Each activity includes an objective, a materials list, instructions, and an explanation that provides scientific, technological, and historical context. The book offers helpful illustrations and clear, easy-to-follow directions. Price: $5.95 (ISBN 0-943451-35-3). Publisher/supplier: The Exploratorium. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.48 Franklin's Forecaster. Prepared by Museum To Go Resource Center. Philadelphia, Pa.: Franklin Institute, 1990. Grades: K-2 Students learn about weather in Franklin's Forecaster, a unit featuring activities conducted with Benjamin Franklin as the focal point. Activities relate to portions of a book entitled The Many Lives of Benjamin Franklin. Students record daily weather conditions, compare and construct models of different kinds of clouds, and draw conclusions about the kinds of weather each brings. They construct a "Franklin Flyer" and a "Franklin Floater" to demonstrate that air moves objects. They learn to use a thermometer and to distinguish between different temperatures without a thermometer. Each activity in Franklin's Forecaster features a teacher's page and several student pages, which provide instructions for setting up and conducting the activity, questions, diagrams, and student data sheets. Prices: Complete kit, $235. Consumables kit, $60. Publisher/supplier : Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 2.49 Geothermal Energy. Marilyn Nemzer and Deborah Page. Tiburon, Calif.: Geothermal Education Office, 1994. Grades: 5-6+ Geothermal Energy, designed for use with students in grades 4 to 8, describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. The information and activities in this well-illustrated guide involve students in an in-depth study of geothermal energy, including its geology, history, and many uses. Science activities are integrated with mathematics, social studies, and language arts. Teachers are encouraged to choose the lessons and activities most appropriate for their students' needs. The activities in the 6 sections of this unit include, for example, demonstrating the effects of burning fuels using mirrors and various heat sources, using swirling colored water to show how hot mantle rock moves in convection currents, testing the effects of heat on evaporation, producing electric current in a magnet, and making a model geothermal steam engine. Each section in Geothermal Energy includes a section "For the Teacher"; activities include an introduction, a materials list, and step-by-step directions. Price: $12. Publisher/supplier: Geothermal Education Office. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.50 The Great Ocean Rescue. Watertown, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1993. Grades: 5-6+ The Great Ocean Rescue is a videodisc package designed to engage students in learning about the ocean and related topics in earth science, environmental science, and life science through a cooperative learning experience. The activity (requiring 4 to 12 class periods) consists of 4 rescue missions that take students to trouble spots in the ocean. Students view a videodisc description of the mission, then break into small groups, with each student in the group adopting the role of a different scientist, such as a geologist, marine biologist, oceanographer, or environmental scientist, to analyze the information. Each group reports its recommendations to the class, and the class decides the trouble spot location. Small groups reconvene to come up with possible solutions to the problem and the class then decides on the best solution. The videodisc includes a library of short movies that complement and extend the rescue activity. Reproducible masters of student worksheets and a poster-sized map of the ocean floor are included. Prices: Classroom kit, $349.95. Software for Mac or Windows (optional), $49.95. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit. 2.51 The Great Solar System Rescue. Cambridge, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1992. Grades: 4-6+ In The Great Solar System Rescue, a videodisc-based simulation set in the year 2210, four probes are lost in space and the class must rescue them. Students analyze data in order to find the best way of rescuing the probes. They view a videodisc description of the mission, then break into small groups, with each student assuming the role of a specific scientist, such as an astronomer, meteorologist, geologist, or space historian, to analyze the information. Each group reports its recommendations to the class and the class decides where to travel. When the probe is located, the small groups reconvene to develop rescue plans, and the class again decides on the best plan. The videodiscs include a library of short movies and stills that complement and extend the rescue activity. Prices: Classroom kit, $349.95. Software for Mac or Windows (optional), $49.95. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit. 2.52 Hands on Elementary School Science: Earth Science. Linda Poore. South Pasadena, Calif.: Linda Poore, 1994. Grades: K-6 The 51 activities in Hands on Elementary School Science : Earth Science are organized in 6 thematic units-(1) Rocks and Soil; (2) Weather; (3) Rocks, Erosion, and Weathering; (4) Space; (5) Earth Resources; and (6) Oceans. Activities in these units include the following: (1) students observe and compare rocks and experiment with different soils; (2) they experiment with wind, rain, dew, frost, fog, and smog; (3) students identify rocks by testing for properties and experiment to discover how erosion and weathering change the earth; (4) they experiment to discover causes of eclipses, orbits, moon phases, the greenhouse effect, and the effects of gravity and zero gravity; (5) they experiment with fossils, minerals, soil, land, water, and air; and (6) they experiment with salinity, oil spills, beach erosion due to wave action, causes of currents, desalination, and tides. Reproducible masters of student worksheets are included in English and Spanish. Prices: Activity binder, $130.00 (complete set of 6 units with school license). Individual unit, $35.00. Kits for individual units: from $186.70 to $299.30. Publisher/supplier: Linda Poore. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit from Delta Education. 2.53 Investigating Science with Dinosaurs. Craig A. Munsart. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press/Libraries Unlimited, 1993. Grades: 4-6+ Investigating Science with Dinosaurs contains activities and information to help students explore what is known about dinosaurs, ranging from topics such as their warmbloodedness to their digestion and "architecture." Activities in the guide help students examine the geographical and geological principles that form the basis of our understanding of the Age of Dinosaurs and the world these creatures inhabited. Students discover the importance of interpreting evidence, chart the relationships among different dinosaurs, and they locate inaccuracies about dinosaurs in books. They assemble full-size drawings of a dinosaur skeleton, translate the Latin and Greek roots of dinosaur names, make models that simulate dinosaur ligaments, create and interpret animals' tracks, and make paper-bag headpieces with eye holes to simulate dinosaur vision. The appendixes include a summary chart of activities, information about fossils and geologic time, and a pronunciation guide to extinct animals. A bibliography and glossary are included. Price: $23 (ISBN 1-56308-008-7). Publisher/supplier: Teacher Ideas Press. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.54 Our Sea of Clouds: An Introduction to Cloud and Sky Watching. H. Michael Mogil, Allan E. Eustis, and Barbara G. Levine. Rockville, Md.: How the Weatherworks, 1992. Grades: 4-6 Our Sea of Clouds: An Introduction to Cloud and Sky Watching is designed to offer teachers a broad perspective on clouds and sky and on the historical background of cloud observing. The 50 multidisciplinary activities, which incorporate mathematics, geography, art, and language arts, offer students opportunities to experiment, predict, observe, classify, and hypothesize about cloud and sky phenomena. The guide is organized in 6 sections that focus on (1) an introduction to sky observation, (2) collecting and interpreting data about sky phenomena, (3) forecasting and climatology, (4) experimenting with clouds, (5) how weather affects our moods and feelings, and (6) weather-related optical phenomena. Examples of activities include students recording sky data on a monthly weather calendar, creating their own cloud maps from the newspaper's weather page, creating clouds in a bottle, and discussing visibility. Some activities stand alone and others are designed to be used in sequence. Our Sea of Clouds includes a teacher's guide, a videotape featuring time-lapse and still cloud photography, and 3 full-color cloud charts. Each section includes objectives, a materials list, and instructions for each activity. The guide includes a bibliography, a glossary, and selected readings. Prices: Teacher's Guide, $14.95. Complete unit, $89.95. Publisher/supplier : How the Weatherworks. Materials: Available locally. 2.55 Out of the Rock: Integrated Learning Activities for Students. National Energy Foundation. Salt Lake City, Utah: National Energy Foundation, 1994. Grades: K-6+ Out of the Rock is a mineral resource education guide for teachers that focuses on topics such as mining, geology, the environment, and economics. It includes an introduction, background information, a conceptual framework, sections dealing with careers, tools of the trade, large-group activities, and additional resources. The 4 sections of integrated learning activities are the central component of the guide. Activities include students participating in a "mining day" celebration, inventing a new device or product that uses minerals or items made from minerals, creating stories about the lifestyles of the early miners, learning the characteristics of rocks and minerals, and using mining vocabulary in a game situation. It is recommended in Out of the Rock that each activity be preceded by a reminder of safety procedures, because some of the activities are potentially hazardous due to the use of chemicals, flammable substances, and/or heat. Price: $25. Publisher/supplier: National Energy Foundation. Materials : Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.56 Out of This World. AIMS. Mary Lind, Pam Knecht, Bill Dodge, and others. Rev. ed. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1994. Grades: 5-6+ In Out of This World, students learn about the planets and their relationships by using tables, planetary facts, Venn diagrams, and drawings of the planets. Students determine the relative sizes of the planets and the distances between them in order to construct a model solar system. They compute travel time to the moon and other planets to determine their own ages after imaginary excursions. They compute gravity factors and compare travel time around the equator of each of the planets. Out of This World was revised in 1994 to reflect newly acquired information from space research. Each of the 20 investigations in this guide has a specific lesson plan, including a list of materials, background information, procedures, discussion questions, reproducible student worksheets, and extensions. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 1-881431-43-6). Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally. 2.57 Rocks, Sand, and Soil. Windows on Elementary Science. Joan Westley. Sunnyvale, Calif.: Creative Publications, 1988. Grades: PreK, K-2 In Rocks, Sand, and Soil, children sort and classify rocks by texture, weight, color, and hardness. They examine soil to determine its components; make sand from rocks; create sand paintings; construct sand timers; and compare soil samples, soil drainage, and plant growth in different soils. Activities in the guide are sequenced by increasing levels of difficulty but do not have to be used in order. Most activities require one class period. Each of the 28 activities in Rocks. Sand, and Soil includes a learning objective, process skills, materials needed, suggested questions for discussions, directions for the exploration, and extensions. Prices: Teacher's Guide (ISBN 088488-707-3), $13.75. Kit, $250.00. Publisher/supplier: Creative Publications. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.

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Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science 2.58 The Story of Drinking Water. 3rd ed. John Dale, Pattianne Corsentino, and Roxanne Brickell. Denver, Colo.: American Water Works Association, 1992. Grades: 4-6+ The Story of Drinking Water attempts to build an appreciation and understanding of the importance of a safe and reliable water supply. The teacher's guide features 19 activities that address a variety of topics ranging from what students know about water, to water treatment, to cycles, supply, use, and conservation. Activities include students making models of the hydrologic cycle, constructing miniature wells to explore the concept of an aquifer, studying chlorine's use as a disinfectant, and investigating the dynamics of water pressure. Many of the activities integrate other curriculum areas—for example, geography in studying water distribution, social studies in creating a solution to the problem of wasted water, and mathematics in learning the concept of 1 part per million. The teacher's guide is designed to accompany a student booklet by the same title, and is available in English, Spanish, French, and metric. Price: $7 (ISBN 0-89867-608-8). Publisher/supplier: American Water Works Association. Materials: Available locally. 2.59 Water, Stones, and Fossil Bones. CESI Sourcebook VI. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association and Council for Elementary Science International (CESI), 1991. Grades: K-6+ Water, Stones, and Fossil Bones offers 51 well-illustrated earth science activities from dozens of authors. Activities are grouped within the topics of space, land, water, air, and the earth's past. Activities include making a scale model of the solar system, using Play-Doh to simulate layers of sedimentary rock, creating miniature landfills in a plastic cup, building a solar collector, and making a fossil cast. Each activity includes background information, a short description of the concepts or skills developed, questions to initiate discussion, step-by-step procedures, and suggestions for further investigation. Price: $16.50 (ISBN 0-87355-101-X). Publisher/supplier: Council for Elementary Science International. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 2.60 Weather and Climate. Step-by-Step Science Series. Toni Albert. Greensboro, N.C.: Carson-Dellosa Publishing Co., 1995. Grades: 4-6 Weather and Climate is a collection of activities designed to introduce students to the elements of weather and climate and the impact they have on daily life. The 37 activities are grouped in 5 sections: (1) introducing weather, (2) elements of weather, (3) meteorology, (4) climate, and (5) man's effect on weather. Activities include making a chart of the layers of the atmosphere, making a windsock to determine wind direction, observing and recording information about clouds, testing the air for particle pollution, and keeping a weather notebook. Students also research topics in books, newspapers, and encyclopedias. Each activity in Weather and Climate includes a statement of purpose, background information, a list of materials, and step-by-step instructions. Price: $5.95. Publisher/supplier: Carson-Dellosa. Materials: Available locally. 2.61 The Weather Kit. Boston, Mass.: Museum of Science, 1992. Grades: 4-6 The Weather Kit, a multidisciplinary curriculum kit from the Museum of Science in Boston, may be used for an intensive study of weather over a 5-week period or as a source of individual weather-related activities. Students collect and measure raindrops; make clouds in bottles; detect air currents inside the school; and measure humidity, temperature, wind speed, and direction with homemade and professional equipment. Activities are grouped in 5 sections: (1) introduction to weather, (2) the sun and thermal energy, (3) air and the atmosphere, (4) water, and (5) weather. Each activity in The Weather Kit includes a statement of purpose, background information, a materials list, and procedures. Some include discussion questions and ideas for further exploration. Instructions on how to access a free on-line weather service are included. Price: Rental for 5 weeks: $105, plus $7 shipping. Publisher/supplier : Museum of Science. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit.