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OCR for page 55
The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop APPENDIX D TIME LINE OF SIGNIFICANT PAST EVENTS AND FORCES As they registered, worksop participants were directed to a long sheet of newsprint on one wall of the plenary meeting room. Across the top of the paper was a time line beginning with 1950 and reaching to 1996. (The beginning of the time line was later moved back to 1900.) The paper was further divided horizontally by a line. The area above the line was labeled "events," the area below the line "forces." Participants were to write on the paper those events or societal forces they knew about that had propelled the collection, dissemination, and use of spatial data to the present day. The results are presented below. There is no correlation between an event and a force in any given year. This is not meant to be an all inclusive time line and the committee recognizes that it reflects the biases of the participants. No attempt was made to remove any bias. The accuracies of specific dates were not verified. Time Event Force 1910 • International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing formed 1940 • Post-WWII attitudes to science & technology 1950 • ILIAC • Atlas of British meteorological maps 1955
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The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop Time Event Force 1957 • Waldo Tobler at University of Wisconsin • First digitizer • COBOL invented • U2 high-altitude photography for mapping • Computerized atlas of British flora • Sputnik 1960 • Growth of environmental awareness 1961 • Formated file system invented by IBM 1962 • First satellite mapping camera (Unamace AS-11) • Civil disobedience (beginning confidence in questioning authority and in significance of grassroots initiatives) 1963 • Sketchpad (MIT) • Military-geo info computerized as GIS for battlefield • First radar map system 1964 • Ready-React produces digital map for the White House • GPS specifications developed by DOD • SYMAP • Bruce Cook, Australia on topology • Chicago transportation studies (Duane Marble) 1965 • CGIS • LINMAP • Drugs/Flower children 1966 • Electrostatic printer • Vietnam War • WGS-66 1967 • Soil cell digitizing (MIADS) • New Haven study • ECU launched • Harvard lab 1968 • MLMIS • Relational database defined by E. F. Codd 1969 • First spatial data transfer standard published (by ECU) • LUNR
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The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop Time Event Force 1970 • Tektronix 4010/4014 • M+S • Integrated circuit 1971 • Blue-ribbon committee creates DMA • Local governments begin using networks to compute travel times for fire, police, siting, with assistance from NBS and HUD; First application of GIS • ERTS/Landsat-1 • GBF DIME • First computer-produced multicolor map in standard series (ECU/BGS) 1972 • Nixon's order to consolidate all DOD mapping • Graphical user interface • HUD USAC project • WGS-72 1973 • Ordnance Survey starts digitizing 230,000 maps 1974 • ALTAIR (personal computer) • Endicott Holse topological data structures • Electric pencil • UNIX 1975 • Federal Mapping Task Force • IBM's GFIS • PIOS/GRID 1976 • Automated map scanner for soil maps (computer vision) • GIRAS • Mandelbrot's first book on fractals • Larson report 1977 • COMARC • Digital line graph (DLG) • Raster-to-vector technology • Defined standards for DTED-DEAD pads • Need to handle large volumes of spatial data • APBS field use of photogrammetry 1978 • IMA GIS for advanced weapons, cruise missile simulators
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The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop Time Event Force 1979 • DIDS • RESPA • World CGA creation of hypermedia 1980 • NRC multipurpose cadastre report • Arpanet creation • FEMA integration of USGS 1:2 million maps, first wall-to-wall digital map • NCDCDS initiated 1981 • FICCDC formed (Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography) • Large-Format Camera Mission • Bill Gates talks with IBM 1982 • Digital photogrammetry • 8088 chip; IBM personal computer 1983 • ETAK formed • USGS/Census MOU • NAD-83 (North American Datum) 1984 • University-use "internet" • SPOEM • Radio Shack M-100 • DMA DPS initiated • Dane County Land Records Project • Client-server RISC chip • WGS-84 • 80286 computer 1985 • First GPS satellites launched 1986 • Burrough published 1987 • Mapping Science Committee formed • 80386 computer 1988 • First public TIGER files • NCGIA created • Berlin Wall comes down 1989 1990 • FGDC formed • DLPO 1991 • National Digital Ortho Program • DMA DPS IOC • USGS topo series completed • 80486 computer • Dissolution of the Soviet Union
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The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop Time Event Force 1992 • DMA GGIS initiative • DHI (MSDDD) • NSGIC formed • OMB Circular A-130 1993 • NRC Report Toward a Coordinated Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Nation" • Spatial data on Internet • GIS on NT • Spatial data transfer standard • National Performance Review (NSDI issue paper) • End of Cold War • Pentium computer (P5) 1994 • MSC Partnerships report • FGDC framework report • Open GIS Consortium established • WWW hypertext • ISO TC 211 • Executive Order 12906 1995 • FGDC clearinghouse • FGDC metadata standard • Windows 95 operating system • TVA geographic partnerships • GIS brought forward as force of change at U.N. HABITAT-2 conference • Ordnance Survey finishes digitizing 230,000 maps • Defense Science Board report on Defense Mapping for Future Operations • Congress "allows" 1-m imaging from space • Oklahoma City bombing • Concept of an IPT formed • P6 computer 1996 • OGIS Spec. V1 • GPS—selective availability scheduled to be turned off
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The Future of Spatial Data and Society: Summary of a Workshop This page in the original is blank.
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