Investigating the technology of papermaking



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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Investigating the technology of papermaking

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CHAPTER 5 MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE Multidisciplinary and Applied Science—Core Materials 5.1 Evolution: Change over Time. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and evolution—change over time. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 8. The texbook Evolution: Change over Time is organized in 3 chapters: (1) "Earth's History in Fossils," (2) "Changes in Living Things over Time," and (3) "The Path to Modern Humans." During the course, students are introduced to 6 types of fossils and to information on geologic eras and periods. They also learn about the biochemical, anatomical, and fossil evidence of evolution and about natural selection and the effects of overproduction, variation, migration, and isolation on evolutionary change. Students study the general characteristics of the primates and the characteristics that are unique to humans. They also examine some of the fossil and chemical evidence that allows scientists to study human evolution, and they find out about probable ancestors of humans. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students make casts and molds of 3 small objects and compare the casts with the original objects. They draw a geologic time line to help them visualize the relationships between evolutionary events. They also measure their jaw and thumb indexes and compare them with those of a gorilla and Australopithecus to identify changes that occurred among earlier hominids and hominids of today. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by calculating," and "find out by writing." Other activities are also suggested—for example, researching the names of several index fossils

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science (fossils used to identify the age of sedimentary rock layers) or preparing a display of objects that represent a student's culture. Other features include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) paleontologist Jack Horner's work on the behavior of dinosaurs, (2) the debate over the cause of the extinction of the great dinosaurs, (3) and a fictional account of the kind of life forms that may have evolved elsewhere in the universe. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 8 investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of investigations include developing a model to demonstrate the half-life of a radioactive element; observing variations in kidney beans, pine needles, and maple leaves; and developing a model that illustrates natural selection in deer mice. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCE—CORE MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide. Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication Number of edition, if applicable Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed) Series title Series developer, if applicable Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication Recommended Grade Level The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level. Key to Content Standard: 5-8 The key lists the content standards for grades 5-8 from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) that are addressed in depth by the item. A key is provided for core materials and supplementary units. (See appendix C.)

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are— Prices (of teacher's guides, student books, lab manuals, and kits or units) Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.) Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials) Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date listings of the program resources and support materials available for a particular unit. Depending on the developer, these items may be required, optional, or both; they may be offered individually and/or in kits, packages, or boxes. Materials may change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter for selected resources or materials are based on information from the publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options. Indexes of Curriculum Materials The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, grade levels, and standards addressed—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series. Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs Appendix D, "Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs with Titles Annotated in This Guide," on pp. 441-48, lists, by program or series, the individual titles annotated in the sections "Core Materials" and "Supplementary Units" in the five curriculum chapters. resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. LIFE SCIENCE: Diversity and adaptations of organisms. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423450-2), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423211-9), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.2 Integrated Science: Book One. Alan Fraser, Ian Gilchrist, Tony Partridge, and others. Integrated Science series. Dallas, Tex.: J. M. LeBel, 1994. Program Overview The Integrated Science series includes 3 full-year courses that integrate chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences with environmental issues and emphasize the development of critical-thinking skills. Four major themes are incorporated in the program: energy, changes over time, systems and structures, and environmental interactions. Designed for students of different ability levels, the lessons are graded as "starting off," "going further," or "for the enthusiast." In addition to the student edition and teacher's manual, the program offers a variety of support materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: late 7. Integrated Science: Book One is organized in 14 chapters on these subjects: scientific measurements and the processes of science, living things, energy, matter, solvents and solutions, cells and reproduction, electricity, gases, heat, earth sciences, earth in space, and energy and the environment. Each chapter consists of 3 to 5 sections of 3 pages each. Sections begin with a hands-on activity or discussion. Activities include, for example, calculating the volume of a drop of water, making a tin car racer, building a windmill that can lift a 50-gram mass, measuring the freezing temperature of water, determining the best way to filter muddy water, examining the reproductive parts of a flower, measuring lung capacity, classifying rocks, using weather maps to compare global patterns of winds and air pressures in summer and winter, and extracting metals from their ores. Teacher's Manual The teacher's manual includes an overview of the organization of the student textbook, safety information, sample lesson plans, information on incorporating cooperative learning techniques, and a summary of the main ideas presented in each chapter of the student textbook. For each section of the student textbook, the teacher's manual includes an estimate of the time required to complete the section, a materials list, information on planning for and conducting activities, and sample answers to student questions. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a resource pack with additional activities, chapter review tests, a math-and-science process skills program, and transparencies. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-920008-60-7), $37.95. Teacher's manual (ISBN 0-920008-61-5), $19.95. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: LeBel. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.3 Integrated Science: Book Two. Alan Fraser, Ian Gilchrist, Tony Partridge, and Harry Herzer III. Integrated Science series. Dallas, Tex.: J. M. LeBel, 1995. Program Overview The Integrated Science series includes 3 full-year courses that integrate chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences with environmental issues and emphasize the development of critical-thinking skills. Four major themes are incorporated in the program: energy, changes over time, systems and structures, and environmental interactions. Designed for students of different ability levels, the lessons are graded as "starting off," "going further," or "for the enthusiast." In addition to the student edition and teacher's manual, the program offers a variety of support materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7. Reading level: middle 7. Integrated Science: Book Two is organized in 14 chapters on these subjects: hydrogen, metals, acids, and bases; the senses; forces and movement; the human body; electricity; earth in space; nutrition and health; the periodic table and materials;

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science electronics; volcanoes, earthquakes, and plate tectonics; weather, atmosphere, and oceans; geologic time; energy; and the environment. Each chapter consists of 1 to 7 sections of 3 pages each. Sections begin with a hands-on activity or discussion. Activities include, for example, investigating the reactivity series of metals; using an indicator to determine whether substances are acids or bases; experimenting with a newton balance; making an electromagnet; using tide tables to determine the relationship between the position of the moon and the height of the tide; comparing the speed at which microbes grow in different conditions; investigating the qualitative relationships between current, voltage, and resistance; and using a geological time scale chart to correlate fossil layers with geological times. Teacher's Manual The teacher's manual includes an overview of the organization of the student textbook, safety information, sample lesson plans, information on incorporating cooperative learning techniques, and a summary of the main ideas presented in each chapter of the student textbook. For each section of the student textbook, the teacher's manual includes an estimate of the time required to complete the section, a materials list, information on planning for and conducting activities, and sample answers to student questions. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a resource pack with additional activities, chapter review tests, a math-and-science process skills program, and transparencies. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; natural hazards; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-920008-45-6), $37.95. Teacher's manual (ISBN 0-920008-67-4), $19.95. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: LeBel. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.4 Investigating Diversity and Limits. Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994. Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: early 9. During the 4 units in Investigating Diversity and Limits, students focus on the following questions: (1) What is normal? (2) How does technology account for my limits? (3) Why are things different? and (4) Why are we different? During the course, students learn about the distribution of characteristics in humans and other organisms, about how broad the "normal" range is, and about the diversity of matter and its limits. They explore the concept of setting standards—for example, speed limits based on human reaction time. They find out how technology can help humans overcome their limits. Students also study the particle theory of matter as an example of the development and use of a scientific model to explain the properties of materials. They study the chromosome theory of inheritance as an explanation for diversity among humans. They examine ethical issues associated with genetic engineering. Among the activities in the course, for example, students collect data on human limits and diversity by doing investigations about vision and graphing the data to produce normal curves. They also devise tests or methods to determine the best paper towel from among a sampling of brands; this activity introduces them

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science to the concepts of criteria, constraints, and final decisions as they apply to the design of a product. Students also design toy boats and airplanes to explore the design process and product diversity. Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas. Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of the limits and diversity of animal senses—such as the poor eyesight of bats and their use of echolocation—or the importance of ergonomics to the design process. "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as constructing a graph. Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides information on teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts. Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; diversity and adaptations of organisms. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6678-7), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6679-5), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $1,403.90. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.5 Investigating Patterns of Change. Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994. Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 6-7. Reading level: early 8. In Investigating Patterns of Change, students learn about a variety of patterns in the natural world and about the relationship between patterns and prediction. The 4 units in the course focus on the following questions: (1) How does my world change? (2) How do we explain patterns of change on earth? (3) How do we adjust to patterns of change? and (4) How can we change patterns? During the course, students use photographs to search for patterns in nature; they identify factors that can change the patterns in plant growth or in how well a medicine works; and they learn to use patterns to make predictions and to develop scientific explanations. Students also learn how scientists and others have recognized and used patterns to develop explanations of some of the earth's features. They look at the locations of volcanoes and earthquakes and learn about the ages of rocks and the surface features of the ocean floor in order to develop their own explanation for earthquakes and volcanoes. Students learn about patterns that support the theory of plate tectonics, about patterns

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science related to the occurrence of weather, and about patterns such as garbage generation and accumulation associated with the increasing size of human populations. Examples of investigations include interpreting sales charts from a fast-food company and predicting future sales results, looking at maps to discover patterns on the earth, observing the pattern of air movements in a convection box, testing the wind-resistance of different building shapes, and examining water movement in model landfills to understand how water can move through landfills and become polluted. Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas. Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of lodestones and the meaning of the term "in the doldrums." "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as rounding off numbers or using a balance. Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts. Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system; earth's history; earth in the solar system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6676-0), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6677-9), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $1,351.90. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.6 Investigating Systems and Change. Middle School Science and Technology series. Developed by Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) (Colorado Springs, Colo.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1994. Program Overview The Middle School Science and Technology series is a 3-year thematic program that integrates the life, earth, and physical sciences and emphasizes technology as a process for solving problems. The curriculum includes investigations, simulations, debates, plays, outdoor activities, research projects, and creative-writing projects. The titles of the 3 year-long courses—Investigating Patterns of Change, Investigating Diversity and Limits, and Investigating Systems and Change—reflect the program's unifying themes. Each course incorporates cooperative learning strategies. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's edition, teacher's resource package, implementation guide, and kit of materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: early 11. During the 4 units in Investigating Systems and Change, students focus on the following questions: (1) How much can things change and still remain the same? (2) How do things change? (3) How can we improve our use of energy? and (4) What are the limits to growth? During the course, students learn about systems in and out of balance, including human body processes and how drugs affect those processes. Students are introduced to the theory of evolution as an example of an idea that has changed over time and as a scientific explanation for changes in living organisms. They also learn about the role of technological systems in solving energy problems. Finally, through the study of population

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science systems, students learn about the interrelationships that influence systemwide change. Examples of activities include investigating chemical balance in the stomach, constructing a scatter plot on the length and width of replicas of fossilized horse teeth to determine how horses have changed over time, designing and constructing a water-heating system, building and using a simple galvanometer as they investigate the benefits and costs of using different energy inputs to generate electricity, and observing the growth of a Daphnia colony. Material in the 4 units is presented in 3 formats: readings, investigations, and "connections" sections. The readings explain concepts and ideas underlying the investigations; the investigations, many of which are open-ended, pose a question for students to answer or a problem for them to solve; the connections features, consisting of activities or discussions, allow students to reflect on their work and to make connections between key ideas. Other text features include "sidelights" and "how to" sections. Sidelights present material such as career descriptions, interesting facts, or historical highlights related to unit topics and themes. Examples include discussions of the history of vaccines and ozone depletion. "How to" sections explain a particular skill, such as determining pulse rate or constructing a scatter plot. Teacher's Edition This wraparound edition includes background information and an overview of each unit, including an overview of the cooperative learning skills emphasized. The guide also provides information on teaching strategies, lesson preparation notes, and materials charts. Program Resources and Support Materials A combination teacher's guide and resource book offers a 2-week introductory unit for students in cooperative learning. It also includes safety procedures, blackline masters, and other information designed to enhance the teaching of the program. Topics include cooperative learning, learning styles, concept mapping, assessment strategies, and suggestions for integrating educational technology. A program implementation guide is also available. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; evolution and equilibrium; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Earth's history. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-8403-6680-9), $44.90. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8403-6681-7), $89.90. Teacher's resource package, $69.90. Kit, $2,495.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.7 The Local Environment. 2nd ed. Francis M. Pottenger III and Donald B. Young. Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series. FAST 1. Honolulu, Hawaii: Curriculum Research and Development Group, 1992. Program Overview The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series is an interdisciplinary science program consisting of 3 courses for middle, junior, and senior high school students. Each 1-year course is organized in 3 strands—physical science (chemistry and physics), ecology (biological and earth sciences), and relational study. The ecology and physical science strands, which provide the formal science content, are intended to be presented concurrently by alternating short sequences of investigations from each strand. The relational study strand integrates the sciences, technology, and society. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's guide, several reference booklets for each course, and other optional teacher support materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: late 8. The Local Environment is organized in 9 units consisting of 88 lab investigations. In the physical science strand of this textbook, students investigate basic concepts, including mass, volume, and density, as well as the relationships between density and buoyancy. They also investigate the melting, freezing, boiling, and condensing of pure substances and mixtures and use their knowledge of changes of state to identify unknown substances. They invent heat-measuring devices and derive the calorie as a standard unit of heat measurement. In the ecology strand of the course, students investigate plants, animals, and the physical environment, focusing on interrelationships

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science among them. They learn about plant growth, animal care, the water cycle, soil composition, the atmosphere, weather and climate, field mapping, and population sampling. They investigate the effects of scarification on the germination of seeds, consider the effect of the environment on plant propagation, and build a weather station and analyze the data they collect. In the relational study strand, students focus on the interrelationships of physical science and ecology by using their knowledge of the environment and of the properties of matter to study air pollution and water resource management issues. Each lab investigation contains brief background information, directions, and questions to guide student learning. The investigations are designed for small, cooperative groups. An appendix provides information on basic units of metric measurement and directions on how to use measurement devices such as a balance and a graduated cylinder. Teacher's Guide Keyed to investigations in the student book, this guide contains teaching suggestions, advice on classroom procedures, and detailed discussions of the conceptual and practical progression of the student investigations. It also includes materials and equipment lists, suggested schedules, and other information for using the program. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 6 student reference booklets—on field mapping, weather instruments, air pollution, plant propagation, animal care, and sampling methods. These booklets describe the use of instruments, suggest experimental designs, outline laboratory techniques, and provide supplemental information for investigations. A student record book with data tables and space for recording notes and observations is also available. An instructional guide for teachers explains the philosophy and design of the FAST program and suggests schedules, sequences, and strategies for organizing and managing classes. An evaluation guide includes tests for assessing laboratory skills and understanding of concepts and an inventory of skills and concepts. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; regulation and behavior. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: Structure of the earth system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-937049-67-0), $21.95. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-937049-68-9), $85.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.8 Matter and Energy in the Biosphere. 2nd ed. Francis M. Pottenger III, Donald B. Young, and E. Barbara Klemm. Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series. FAST 2. Honolulu, Hawaii: Curriculum Research and Development Group, 1994. Program Overview The Foundational Approaches in Science Teaching (FAST) series is an interdisciplinary science program consisting of 3 courses for middle, junior, and senior high school students. Each 1-year course is organized in 3 strands—physical science (chemistry and physics), ecology (biological and earth sciences), and relational study. The ecology and physical science strands, which provide the formal science content, are intended to be presented concurrently by alternating short sequences of investigations from each strand. The relational study strand integrates the sciences, technology, and society. Components of the program include the student book, teacher's guide, several reference booklets for each course, and other optional teacher support materials. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 8. Matter and Energy in the Biosphere is organized in 8 units consisting of 69 lab investigations and activities designed to teach students about the transfer of matter and energy through ecosystems. In the physical sciences strand of this textbook, students investigate the nature of light and heat, search for evidence of an atomic structure of matter, and explore the kinetic molecular model of matter. In the ecology strand, they investigate the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, and they develop an understanding of the interdependence of all living organisms. In the relational study strand, they engage in decision-making situations

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science that require them to analyze such global problems as shortages of food or of fossil fuel. They also design, create, and maintain a balanced microecosystem and a forced microecosystem, and they measure all inputs and outputs of each system. Each lab investigation contains brief background information, directions, and questions to guide student learning. The investigations are designed for small, cooperative groups. An appendix provides information on basic units of metric measurement and directions on how to use measurement devices such as a balance and a graduated cylinder. Teacher's Guide Keyed to investigations in the student book, this guide contains teaching suggestions, advice on classroom procedures, and detailed discussions of the conceptual and practical progression of the student investigations. It also includes materials and equipment lists, suggested schedules, and other information for using the program. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including 6 student reference booklets—on elements and compounds, gases, chromatography, composting, components of biomass, and field productivity. These booklets describe the use of instruments, suggest experimental designs, outline laboratory techniques, and provide additional information. An instructional guide for teachers explains the philosophy and design of the FAST program and suggests schedules, sequences, and strategies for organizing and managing classes. An evaluation guide includes tests for assessing laboratory skills and understanding of concepts and an inventory of skills and concepts. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. LIFE SCIENCE: Structure and function in living systems; populations and ecosystems. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Populations, resources, and environments; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: History of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-937049-83-2), $21.95. Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-937049-84-0), $85.00. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: University of Hawaii at Manoa. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.9 Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Sixth Grade. Helen M. Parke, Charles R. Coble, and Rita M. Elliott. Middle Grades Science series. Greenville, N.C.: Helen Meriwether Parke, 1996. Program Overview The Middle Grades Science series is an integrated science program for middle school students (grades 6, 7, and 8). The program uses a "spiral" approach to teaching science content and is designed around an evolving story line. Each year-long course is based on investigations of a series of questions that focus on scientific concepts and their relationship to the real-world. Concepts are drawn from biology, chemistry, earth and space science, and physics. Components of the program include teacher's guides—1 for each grade level, a program handbook, and a technology supplement. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 6. Reading level: early 7. Middle Grades Science: A Problem-Solving Approach, Sixth Grade consists of 5 modules that address the following questions: (1) Where are we in the solar system? (2) How can we tell where we are? (3) How do we interact with our dynamic world? (4) What do we need to survive? and (5) What do we need to do to survive? During the unit, students explore the features and characteristics of the components of our solar system; the relative position and relative motion of the earth with respect to the sun; navigation methods; rocks and soil; properties of air; the composition of the earth's atmosphere; the different forms of water and the location of water on the earth's surface; classification of life forms; and the relationships between populations, communities, and ecosystems. Among the activities in the module, for example, students make a scale model of the relative sizes of the planets, construct and use a compass, and investigate the relationship between the apparent motion of the sun and shadow movement. They also examine soil samples to determine the composition of soil, design insulators and conductors from different materials, and observe the growth and development of mealworms, pumpkin seeds, and mold. Investigations in the unit range from hands-on activities to "WeSearches," requiring teams of students

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are— Prices (of teacher's guides, activity books, and kits or units) Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.) Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials) Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date ordering information, since prices are subject to change and materials may also change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter are based on information from publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options. Indexes of Curriculum Materials The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, and grade levels—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series. 5.56 The Ben Franklin Book of Easy and Incredible Experiments: Activities, Projects, and Science Fun. A Franklin Institute Science Museum Book. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley, 1995. Recommended grade level: 4-8. This book contains more than 60 activities related to 6 subjects that interested Benjamin Franklin: (1) observation and experimentation, (2) meteorology, (3) electricity, (4) sound and music, (5) paper and printing, and (6) lenses and vision. Among the activities, for example, students play an observation game, make a weather station, experiment with static electricity, build their own printing press, and make and use a kaleidoscope. They also create an orchestra with handmade flutes, water chimes, and a shoe-box guitar. Each of the 6 chapters in the book begins with entertaining historical anecdotes about Franklin, his inventions, or the experiments he did; entries from his journals or letters are often included. Each activity includes a list of materials, scientific background or explanations, step-by-step procedures, illustrations, and suggestions for extensions. All of the activities use inexpensive, readily available materials and can be done in any order. Price: $12.95 (ISBN 0-471-07638-4). Publisher/supplier: Wiley. Materials: Available locally.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.57 Classroom 2061: Activity-Based Assessments in Science Integrated with Mathematics and Language Arts. Elizabeth Hammerman and Diann Musial. Palatine, Ill.: IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing, 1995. Recommended grade level: 4-8. Classroom 2061: Activity-Based Assessments in Science Integrated with Mathematics and Language Arts includes performance assessments and practical guidelines for developing such assessments. This teacher's guide is organized in 2 sections. The first focuses on "the new visions" for science, mathematics, and language arts education and provides guidelines for developing meaningful, integrated performance assessments. The second section includes a set of 10 performance assessments linked to national standards. The assessments incorporate a variety of ways to assess students' concept understanding, process-skill acquisition, habits of mind, and ability to make real-world connections. Most of the assessments include more than one activity, a writing prompt, and a set of criterion-referenced questions that can be used in conjunction with the activities. Reproducible student masters are included. Price: $22.95 (ISBN 1-57517-004-3). Publisher/supplier: IRI/Skylight. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.58 Critical Issues in Today's World: A Module for Grades 4-7. Marilyn Bodourian and Louis A. Iozzi. Science-Technology-Society: Preparing for Tomorrow's World series. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West, 1993. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Critical Issues in Today's World contains 10 activity modules designed to help students explore and consider solutions to current science and technology problems or issues. The emphasis is on increasing students' ability to analyze issues that arise in a technological society and on enhancing their awareness of their own role in the process of technological change. The 10 modules examine (1) decision making, (2) technology, (3) inventions, (4) artificial intelligence, (5) energy, (6) transportation, (7) environmental concerns, (8) oceans, (9) endangered species, and (10) conservation. Among the activities, for example, students examine a model for making decisions, discuss whether inventions are always good, and analyze what dangerous or boring tasks currently done by people could be done by robots in the future. Students also prepare a transportation plan for a new city, participate in a simulation to decide if an amendment should be added to the Clean Air Act, and think about what would happen if all birds became extinct. Each module begins with background readings and discussion questions and is meant to stand-alone, as are most of the exercises or activities. Designed to develop analytical skills, the activities include writing exercises, scenario discussions, and informal and formal debates. Most of them are paper-and-pencil exercises; many combine science and social studies. This 3-ring-binder includes student pages, teaching guidelines for each activity, and background information on the program. Price: $60 (ISBN 0-944584-80-2). Publisher/supplier: Sopris West. Materials: Available locally. 5.59 Earth and Physical Science: Content and Learning Strategies. Mary Ann Christison and Sharron Bassano. Science Through Active Reading (STAR) series. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1992. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Earth and Physical Science: Content and Learning Strategies is a specialized text for middle school and secondary ESL (English as a Second Language) students or for students experiencing difficulty using a traditional science textbook. One of 4 books in the Science Through Active Reading (STAR) series, it is designed to help students with limited English proficiency develop the science vocabulary, critical-thinking skills, and learning strategies needed for higher-level schoolwork. Largely a reading text, this book integrates exercises in reading comprehension, vocabulary, and learning strategies with hands-on science activities in 6 areas of science: meteorology, topography, oceanography, astronomy, and physics and chemistry. Topics covered include the difference between weather and climate, the water cycle, drainage basins, rocks, ocean movement, properties of matter, and Newton's laws of motion. In the hands-on activities, for example, students work together to compare and contrast different soils, model ocean currents, or play with a ball to explore inertia. Each chapter features a very brief introduction to a science topic, to be read by the teacher and students together. This introduction is followed by critical-thinking activities, directions for simple hands-on group experiments, prereading focus questions to help students read selectively, reading sections, self-evaluation activities, and extension activities. Each chapter also includes diagrams and charts to help students' comprehension and learning. All of the activities emphasize cooperative groups and peer-tutoring. The teacher's edition includes an answer key for the prereading focus questions. Prices: Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-8013-0986-7), $12.84. Student edition (ISBN 0-8013-0348-6), $11.12. Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.60 Everyday Science: Real-Life Activities. John M. Scott. Portland, Maine: Walch, 1988. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Everyday Science offers more than 300 ideas for short activities and simple demonstrations designed to heighten students' interest in science. The activities are organized in 16 chapters by topic. The wide range of topics includes motion and forces, space travel, weather, oceanography, matter, energy, senses, photosynthesis, electricity, and astronomy. Among the activities, for example, students explore the pressure-volume relationship of a gas using a basting tube and a glass of water; they see how convection currents work by heating a glass coffeepot filled with sawdust and water; and they make a compass galvanometer out of a cardboard cylinder, insulated wire, and a small compass. Each chapter begins with several pages of stories, examples, applications, or "believe-it-or-not" anecdotes illustrating how science principles operate in everyday situations or events. Examples include explanations of why golf balls are dimpled or of how Newton's laws operate when a car is being driven. Simple directions are then given for carrying out related activities at home or in the classroom. The activities require simple equipment and ordinary household items. Some activities are open-ended; others are solved for students. Price: $17.95 (ISBN 0-8251-2705-X). Publisher/supplier: Walch. Materials: Available locally. 5.61 Exciting Science and Engineering: A Series of Problem Solving Tasks for Seven to Fourteen Year Olds. Heslington, York, England: Chemical Industry Education Centre, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Exciting Science and Engineering contains 9 units for 11- to 14-year-olds. Most units include 2 or 3 lessons or activities. In each unit, students are involved in problem solving as they investigate real-life situations or stories such as being snowbound, constructing Stonehenge, or getting rid of dampness in an apartment building. The book is designed to help students see that the science they learn in school can be used to solve real-world problems. Topics addressed include noise pollution, the use of dynamos for bicycle lights, industrial problems involving the transportation and dissolving of salt, the scientific principles involved in floating and sinking (a shipwreck is analyzed), coastline erosion, and the properties of hydrocarbons in pipelines. In the unit on condensation, for example, students explore the causes of condensation, design a simple dehumidifier, and evaluate commercial anti-condensation systems. In the unit on Stonehenge, they consider the scale of Stonehenge and the kinds of problems involved in its construction; they investigate how simple machines, such as levers or ramps, must have been used by Neolithic people to move the enormous rocks at the site; and they try to figure how the lintels could have been raised. Throughout the activities, students must apply integrated scientific principles to find solutions. Each activity has suggestions for involving a local engineer or scientist in the classroom as an adviser or as a contributor to discussions. Each unit provides background information, teaching notes, a brief description of possible roles in the unit for an engineer, and student sheets, where appropriate. Because the guide is published in Great Britain, some words may need to be Americanized (for example, "flats" or "petrol" may be unfamiliar to students). Price: $70. Publisher/supplier: Chemical Industry Education Centre. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.62 Fingerprinting. Reprinted with revisions. Jeremy John Ahouse and Jacqueline Barber. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1993. Recommended grade level: 4-7. In the unit Fingerprinting, students explore the similarities and variations of fingerprints. They take their own fingerprints, devise a scheme for classifying fingerprints, and apply their classification skills to solve a crime. In session 1 students use pencils, paper, and tape to take their fingerprints. In session 2 they group 10 different fingerprints according to the way they look. Students are then introduced to the standard arch-loop-whorl system of fingerprint classification. In the final session, they apply their knowledge of fingerprints to determine which of 5 suspects robbed a safe. The mystery scenario, "Who Robbed the Safe?" includes plot and character sketches. Examples of extension activities include fingerprint art, an introduction to genetics, and role-playing news reporters covering the crime scene. Fingerprinting includes 3 or 4 sessions of 30 to 60 minutes each. The lesson plan for each session includes an overview, a list of materials, blackline masters of student worksheets, and complete instructions for planning and conducting the activity. This teacher's guide also includes answers to typical student

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science questions, summary outlines for the 3 sessions, literature connections, and assessment suggestions for fifth-grade students. Price: $9 (ISBN 0-912511-21-4). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.63 Forecasting the Future: Exploring Evidence for Global Climate Change. Education Department, Stephen Birch Aquarium-Museum, in collaboration with Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Arlington, Va.: National Science Teachers Association, 1996. Recommended grade level: 8+. Forecasting the Future is designed to help students understand the science behind climate and global climate change. The first section of the guide includes a detailed narrative of scientific background, which may need to be interpreted or adapted for student use. The section explains the clues that scientists study to find out about climate in the past and where they find them, how scientists measure the earth's temperature, the importance of water in climate change, how living organisms contribute or respond to climate change, and the role human beings can play in limiting greenhouse gases. The second section of the guide offers 14 stand-alone activities that explore various aspects of climate and cover a range of disciplines: plant and animal biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics. For example, students study fish scales to identify changes in environmental conditions experienced by a fish. They create a simulated sediment bed with pollen grains and take core samples and analyze them. They also expose soil samples to sunlight to study the relationship between heat, evaporation, and erosion. In other activities, they examine tree rings, and they observe phase changes in water due to heating and cooling and relate these changes to climate zones. Several activities promote the concept of change over time. Reproducible student pages and teacher's pages are included for each activity. The third section of the guide includes tips on designing science lessons that employ scientific inquiry and 40 ideas for extension activities. The last section includes a geological time line; a glossary; and an annotated bibliography of resources, including books, teacher's guides, and Internet resources that deal with climate change. Price: $21.95 (ISBN 0-87355-139-7). Publisher/supplier: National Science Teachers Association. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.64 Great Moments in Science: Experiments and Readers Theatre. Kendall Haven. Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press, 1996. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Great Moments in Science contains 12 stories about historic moments in the development of Western science. Included are stories about the work and discoveries of Archimedes, Galileo, Franklin, Newton, Pasteur, Mendel, and Goddard, among others. Topics addressed include levers, gravity, air pressure, electricity, heat, comets, microorganisms, heredity, rocketry, radioactivity, and the discovery of penicillin. The stories are presented in the form of scripts for reading aloud; each script includes 4 to 6 roles. Several simple experiments after each story allow students to replicate or learn more about the "science moment" described in the story. For example, students investigate levers and beams as Archimedes did. They observe the swinging of a pendulum as Galileo did. They also study the growth of common bread molds as Pasteur did. The experiments, mostly done in small groups, allow students many opportunities to investigate sources of error in scientific research and to revise the design, conduct, and materials of their experiments. Each story and experiment has brief scientific background information, step-by-step instructions, and a list of references for further reading. Price: $24.50 (ISBN 1-56308-355-8). Publisher/supplier: Teacher Ideas Press. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.65 Historical Connections in Mathematics: Resources for Using History of Mathematics in the Classroom. Vol I. Wilbert Reimer and Luetta Reimer. Historical Connections in Mathematics series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1992. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume I of Historical Connections in Mathematics is a collection of resources designed to help teachers integrate the history of mathematics into their teaching. The book emphasizes how people have discovered and developed mathematics, and it stresses that the process of problem solving is as important as the solution. Organized in 10 chapters, each on a famous mathematician, the book provides portraits, concise biographical information, and interesting anecdotal stories—on Pythagoras, Archimedes, Napier, Galileo, Fermat, Pascal, Newton, Euler, Germain, and Gauss. Also included are reproducible puzzles, crosswords, skits, games, and other activities that allow students to make connections with social studies, language arts, and science.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Not all of the activities replicate the exact problems worked on by the famous mathematicians, but they do represent the areas of interest of those mathematicians. For example, students use a technique that Archimedes used to calculate how many kernels of popcorn it would take to fill their classroom. They complete a table to discover Fermat's Two-Square Theorem. They also solve the same mathematical problem given to Gauss when he was 10 years old. Complete solutions and suggestions for using the activities are included. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-35-5), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally. 5.66 Historical Connections in Mathematics: Resources for Using History of Mathematics in the Classroom. Vol. III. Wilbert Reimer and Luetta Reimer. Historical Connections in Mathematics series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1995. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume III of Historical Connections in Mathematics is a collection of resources designed to help teachers integrate the history of mathematics into their teaching. The book emphasizes how people have discovered and developed mathematics, and it stresses that the process of problem solving is as important as the solution. Organized in 10 chapters, each on a famous mathematician, the book provides portraits, concise biographical information, and interesting anecdotal stories—on Eratosthenes, Fibonacci, Descartes, Agnesi, Lagrange, Somerville, Dodgson, Venn, Noether, and Polya. Also included are reproducible puzzles, crosswords, skits, games, and other activities that allow students to make connections with social studies, language arts, and science. Not all of the activities replicate the exact problems worked on by the famous mathematicians, but they do represent the areas of interest of those mathematicians. For example, students use a method developed by Eratosthenes to find all the prime numbers between 1 and 100. They create Fibonacci-like mathematical sequences. They also solve the puzzles called doublets that Charles Dodgson (also known as Lewis Carroll) invented. Complete solutions and suggestions for using the activities are provided at the back of the book. An appendix includes a collection of programs for the TI-82 graphic calculator. The programs may be modified for use with other programmable calculators. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-49-5), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally. 5.67 Investigating Apples. Christine V. Johnson. Real-World Mathematics through Science series. Developed by Washington Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Group (Seattle, Wash.). Menlo Park, Calif.: Innovative Learning Publications, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Investigating Apples contains 6 activities that teach students the basics of statistical analysis by having them collect, organize, and interpret data related to apples. Students also learn how apples are cultivated and sized. Working in cooperative groups, they measure the masses of different varieties of size-80 apples, and they organize their data by preparing and analyzing line plots. They also explore stem plots and box plots as additional methods for displaying and analyzing data. They investigate the relationship between an apple's height and mass and its diameter and mass by constructing and analyzing scatter plots. At the end of the unit, they conduct and analyze a survey with their families on the texture and flavor of 3 varieties of apples. During the unit, students discuss the uncertainty of measurement, the importance of statistical reasoning, and the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of organizing data. Short readings introduce them to careers in pomology (the science of growing fruit) and statistics and to the role of statistics in improving and monitoring apple-storage procedures. Each activity requires 1 or 2 class sessions of 40 to 50 minutes and includes an overview, a materials list, background information, teaching procedures, discussion and assessment questions, and reproducible student record sheets. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-201-49040-4). Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally. 5.68 Learning about Learning. Jacqueline Barber, Katharine Barrett, Kevin Beals, and others. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) series. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1996. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Learning about Learning contains 10 activities that allow students to explore questions of how individual humans and animals learn, of how learning helps humans survive, and of how the brain changes with learning. Students consider these questions as they explore the human organism, animal behavior, health and safety, product testing, the ethics of experimentation, and what scientists do. The activities include simulations, a play, stories, hands-on investigations, and discussions. Among the activities, for example, students make tactile mazes and test the mazes on a blindfolded partner to investigate how limiting sensory information makes learning more

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science challenging. They attempt to solve 2 health-related mysteries that are based on true stories of how scientists learn. They also investigate how animals and humans learn what is safe to eat and why there is a need for regulations applying to food, drugs, and cosmetics. In other activities, students read and discuss "Genie," the true story about a girl raised in isolation. They measure and compare diagrams of brain cells from rats raised in "impoverished" environments and those raised in "enriched" environments. They engage in a dialogue about the benefits and costs of learning from conducting research with humans or animals. Each activity in this unit takes 45 to 60 minutes to complete. The guide includes background information for the teacher, summary outlines for each activity, extensions, assessments activities, and reproducible student pages. Price: $25.50 (ISBN 0-912511-95-8). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.69 Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation. Minds-on Science series. Developed by National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.). Water-town, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. During the activities in Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation, a videodisc activity kit, students role-play the science adviser to the President of the United States. The scenario is that the nation is facing both urgent and long-term problems, and students must make a decision about the nation's scientific policy: Should the federal government focus its money and energy on biotechnology, space exploration, or the environment? To help make their decision, students review conflicting data and opinions from 4 advisers—a congressional representative, an engineer, a scientist, and an economist. Through video segments and short scientific readings in their student portfolios, they also become familiar with "big science" projects—such as the Manhattan Project, the Space Program, and the Human Genome Project—and how these projects have affected people's lives. In short paper-and pencil activities, students look at how science pervades their everyday lives, calculate how they can reduce their contribution to pollution, think about items they would take on a space trip, and consider how a genetically engineered item differs from the original. Eight extension activities are also suggested. They include conducting an experiment that illustrates the greenhouse effect, modeling the process of DNA profiling, or interviewing adults about scientific changes they have witnessed in their lifetime. Students work cooperatively in teams of 4 as they gather information and do the activities. At the end of the unit, they must reach a consensus and decide as a class what direction scientific research should take. They watch the consequences of their decision on the video, then face a new dilemma and must make a second decision. Including the extensions, the activities in Minds-on Science: For the Sake of the Nation take about 4 to 5 weeks to complete. The kit includes the videodisc, 28 student portfolios, and a teacher's guide. Prices: Videodisc kit, $245.95. Software for Macintosh or Windows (optional), $49.50. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit. 5.70 Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery. Minds-on Science series. Developed by National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, D.C.). Watertown, Mass.: Tom Snyder Productions, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8. During the activities in Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery, a videodisc activity kit, students role-play a research scientist who has just discovered a compound that improves memory in laboratory rats. Students must decide what to do next: Should they publish the results, hold a press conference to announce the discovery to the world, or start a company to sell the compound? To help make their decision, students review conflicting data and opinions from 4 advisers—a scientist, a friend, a doctor, and a business-person. Through video segments and short scientific readings in their student portfolios, they also develop an understanding of the brain, memory, the scientific method, and the process of turning a scientific discovery into a new product or medicine. In short paper-and-pencil activities, students conduct a memory experiment, look at safety problems with food and drugs, and consider the pros and cons of animal testing. Seven extension activities are suggested. They include designing and carrying out a memory experiment, tracking science in the news, or interviewing adults about scientific developments they have witnessed in their lifetime. Students work cooperatively in teams of 4 as they gather information and do the activities. At the end of the unit, they must reach a consensus and make a decision as a class on what to do with the company. Students watch the consequences of their decision on the video, then face a new dilemma and must make a second decision. Including the extensions, the activities in Minds-on Science: The Impact of Discovery take about 4 to

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5 weeks to complete. The kit includes the videodisc, 28 student portfolios, and a teacher's guide. Prices: Videodisc kit, $249.95. Software for Macintosh or Windows (optional), $49.95. Publisher/supplier: Tom Snyder Productions. Materials: Available in kit. 5.71 Multiculturalism in Mathematics, Science, and Technology: Readings and Activities. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1993. Recommended grade level: 8+. Multiculturalism in Mathematics, Science, and Technology is designed to help teachers infuse multicultural education into their science and mathematics classes. Divided into 37 short stand-alone units, the book features more than 50 activities and readings that highlight the achievements of a broad spectrum of individuals and cultures—from the Zuni, to Omar Khayyam, to the ancient Egyptians. Among the activities, for example, students use the ancient Egyptian method of multiplication to calculate 11 × 33. They also test young corn and potato plants in ways that parallel the experiments of Native-American agriculturalists, and they simulate the method the Celts used to make butter. Each unit begins with a 1-page reading on the achievements of the individual or the culture highlighted in the unit. Critical-thinking questions then encourage learning and reflection, and 1 or 2 activities give students an idea of the mathematical or scientific reasoning used by the subject of the unit. The book contains many paper-and-pencil activities that require analysis or interpretation of collected data. Knowledge of algebra and geometry is required for some activities. Although the activities in each unit may be used independently of the readings, it is recommended that units be treated as a whole. Teaching notes are provided for each unit. They include specific suggestions for using the readings and activities, limited background information, preparation tips, and extension ideas. Price: $22.20 (ISBN 0-201-29417-6). Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally. 5.72 Multicultural Science and Math Connections: Middle School Projects and Activities. Beatrice Lumpkin and Dorothy Strong. Walch Reproducible Books. Portland, Maine: Walch, 1995. Recommended grade level: 5-8+. Multicultural Science and Math Connections is organized in 2 parts, each containing units that feature a culture or an individual. The book includes more than 80 science and mathematics activities and projects that introduce students to brilliant discoveries of 17 cultures from Africa to the Arctic. Also featured are contributions of 10 outstanding scientists and mathematicians—for example, Lewis Latimer, Leon Roddy, and Mae Jemison. Among the activities, for example, students learn about and make an Egyptian carpenter's level. They make a model planetarium of an ancient observatory in Kenya. They also build and use an Inca abacus, and they study Native American teepee designs. Each unit includes an introductory classroom activity and background information presented through a short reading about the experiences of young people from the time and culture of interest or about events in the life of the scientist or mathematician. Critical-thinking questions follow, and additional science, mathematics, or class research or experimentation projects are suggested. The units are designed to be used as a whole but can also be used individually. The materials are inexpensive and readily available. Answers to the critical-thinking questions are provided. Price: $24.95 (ISBN 0-8251-2659-2). Publisher/supplier: Walch. Materials: Available locally. 5.73 Science and Technology by Design: 3. Colin Webb. Sydney, Australia: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. Recommended grade level: 5-6. The activities in Science and Technology by Design: 3 involve investigating, designing, making, and using technology. The nearly 100 activities are organized in 10 units. Students (1) design and calibrate simple measuring instruments; (2) use the activity of microorganisms in practical ways such as making bread, cottage cheese, and yogurt; (3) investigate structures built by animals, by various civilizations, and by contemporary society; (4) investigate space; (5) explore concepts related to the muscular and skeletal systems, body movement, circulation, respiration, diet, reactions and learning; (6) investigate the use of levers, wheels, gears, and pulleys performing design tasks; (7) investigate the various forms of energy and the ways people use energy in their homes, for transport, and as food; (8) look at a variety of testing procedures, such as market research surveys; (9) investigate things that are used for entertainment; and (10) examine aspects of packaging. Science and Technology by Design: 3 provides an introduction for each unit. The 2-page activities consist of a reproducible student page that presents the challenge and notes for the teacher explaining the scientific concept involved, along with ideas to stimulate discussion. Prices: Aust. $51.95 (ISBN 0-7295-2854-5). Publisher/supplier: Harcourt Brace, Australia. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.74 Science Experiments and Projects for Students. Julia H. Cothron, Ronald N. Giese, and Richard J. Rezba. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Using Science Experiments and Projects for Students, students can practice the skills they need to create and conduct their own original experiments and assess their work. Written for students, the guide is designed to teach the fundamentals of planning and conducting science experiments using the scientific method—that is, generating experimental ideas, developing an experimental design, collecting and presenting data, conducting statistical analysis, using library resources, and writing about and presenting scientific findings in the classroom or in a competition. The 14 chapters in the book could be used individually but are sequenced to be treated as a whole. Each chapter addresses an aspect of the scientific method in detail through a structured sequence of readings, skill-building exercises, activities, practice problems, and self-assessments. In the chapter on analyzing experimental data, for example, students learn to distinguish among quantitative, qualitative, ratio, interval, ordinal, and nominal data. They also select the appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for a given set of data, describe 3 ways to find the central value of a set of data, describe 4 ways to report the variation in a set of data, construct a data table and graph for sets of quantitative and qualitative data, and use a checklist to evaluate data tables and graphs and to identify needed improvements. Science Experiments and Projects for Students is the student version of Students and Research: Practical Strategies for Science Classrooms and Competitions. (See 1.106.) Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-7872-2826-5). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.75 Science Is … 2nd ed. Susan V. Bosak. Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Scholastic Canada; and Markham, Ontario, Canada: The Communication Project, 1991. Recommended grade level: 1-8. Science Is … is a comprehensive collection of more than 450 activities, experiments, projects, games, puzzles, and stories organized by type of activity, by subject area, and by topic. The 3 types of activities are as follows: (1) "Quickies" are short activities that require few or no materials and can be done on the spur of the moment. They might be used to introduce basic concepts in a subject area. (2) "Make Time" activities require a little planning, some readily available and inexpensive materials, and at least 30 minutes to complete. These activities often deal with key subject area concepts in depth. (3) "One Leads to Another"—activities within a subject area that build upon one another—emphasize a key theme for the subject area or result in a completed project and require some planning. Within each type, activities are organized in 10 subject areas: (1) discovering science, (2) matter and energy, (3) humans, (4) the environment, (5) rocks, (6) plants, (7) living creatures, (8) weather, (9) the heavens, and (10) applying science. In addition to the 10 subject areas, activities are organized in 40 topics that interrelate activities within and between subject areas. A master chart shows where items on the 40 topics can be found in the 10 subject areas. Each activity in Science Is … includes a 2-line introduction, a materials list, and procedures, as well as appropriate background information and other fact-filled boxes. This sourcebook also includes a section for teachers on how to use the book, an extensive list of resources, and an index. Price: $29.95 (ISBN 0-590-74070-9). Publisher/supplier: Idea Factory. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.76 Science on a Shoestring. 2nd ed. Kara Strongin and Gloria Strongin. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1991. Recommended grade level: K-8. This second edition of Science on a Shoestring includes 62 investigations grouped under 3 themes—matter, change, and energy. Students investigate how matter behaves, interacts, and how it can change; they become aware of the changes occurring in themselves and in their environment; and they become more aware of the effects of gravity, magnetism, electricity, sound, and light upon them and their environment. Most investigations may be introduced without regard to sequence. Each lesson in Science on a Shoestring includes a suggested grade level; a list of required materials (all inexpensive and easily obtainable); a short vocabulary list; a brief overview of the activity, including an explanation of the concepts involved; and step-by-step procedures for conducting the activity. Most lessons offer ideas for home investigations, and questions for discussion and/or evaluation. A master list of materials is included. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-201-25760-2), $18.95. Publisher/supplier: Addison-Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.77 Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: A Guide for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Boulder, Colo.: American Solar Energy Society, 1991. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Science Projects in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency is a resource book with suggestions and information for developing experimental and nonexperimental projects related to solar energy, renewable energy technologies, and other related areas such as superconductivity and energy storage. Rather than being an instruction book with complete directions and answers for projects or experiments, this idea book is designed to help teachers and students develop and conduct their own experiments or science-fair projects. The book has 4 sections: (1) an outline of ways teachers can help students during an experimental project; (2) a review of how to do a science project—that is, the steps in the scientific method; (3) more than 100 ideas for projects in energy efficiency and sources of information or tips relevant to that topic; and (4) an excellent annotated list of resources, many of which are free, including books, articles, films, slide presentations, and software packages related to solar and renewable energy. Included in the section on project ideas is a short introduction to each topic, hints on how to set up and conduct possible experiments, bibliographic references, a list of special equipment required, and schematics for setups. Price: $10. Publisher/supplier: National Energy Foundation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.78 Sciencewise, Book 2: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving. Dennis Holley. Pacific Grove, Calif.: Critical Thinking Books and Software, 1996. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Sciencewise, Book 2 is a resource guide containing 54 demonstrations and activities designed to develop students' creative-thinking, problem-solving, and "inventioneering" skills. Specific principles or concepts are demonstrated in the exercises, but the emphasis is on active involvement of the students in learning science process skills. The guide features 2 types of exercises: "Dynamic Demos" and "Creative Challenges." In the first type, the 36 teacher-led demonstration activities, students do the thinking and the teacher does the doing. The teacher sets up and presents a problem situation ("What will happen if …" or "Why did that happen?"). Using guided questions and manipulating apparatus and equipment, the teacher helps the student understand the problem, make accurate observations and reasonable predictions, and arrive at a conclusion or answer to the problem. The activities include, for example, investigating whether a jar of sand will roll as far as a jar of water (and why or why not), or thinking of ways to blow up a balloon that is inside a container—without touching the balloon or removing the stopper from the container that holds the balloon. With the 18 Creative Challenges, students are asked to develop a solution to a problem (given a particular set of rules) using the scientific process skills shown by the teacher in the demonstrations. For example, they are asked to invent a new use for a wire coat hanger; to design and build a device that will float as many pennies as possible; or to construct a maze that will take a marble from the top of a shoe-box to the bottom of the box in 30 seconds. Each demonstration activity includes a teacher section that lists materials needed, step-by-step procedures, outcomes and explanations, extensions, and ways the activity can be continued at home. A student record sheet is also provided. Each challenge activity includes a student page and a teacher's page. Price: $21.95 (ISBN 0-89455-648-7). Publisher/supplier: Critical Thinking Books. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.79 Super Science Activities: Favorite Lessons from Master Teachers. Rob Beattie, Diane Bredt, Janet Graeber, and others. Palo Alto, Calif.: Dale Seymour Publications, 1988. Recommended grade level: 5-8+. Super Science Activities includes 25 lessons in the physical, earth, and life sciences from the repertoires of 8 science teachers. Topics include plate tectonics, earthquakes, genetics, ecology, electricity, and chromatography. Examples of activities include inventing a seismograph, using chromatography to identify the author of a mystery note, building a working battery, and creating a balanced ecosystem in an aquarium. Super Science Activities contains 6 units, each with 3 to 5 lessons and a bibliography. Each lesson has background information, vocabulary, a list of materials, classroom management suggestions, step-by-step procedures, and enrichment activities. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-86651-445-7). Publisher/supplier: Dale Seymour. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 5.80 The Teaching Tank Discovery Book. Vol. 1. Paul J. Reinbold and David R. Burgess. Nashua, N.H.: Captivation, 1996. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume 1 of The Teaching Tank Discovery Book contains directions for 50 activities meant to be done with a simple device called a "teaching tank"—a 2-sided Plexiglas container. The activities, many of which are demonstrations, cover a wide range of topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. For example, students use the tank for observing root growth, for growing stalactites and stalagmites, or for predicting and observing the effect of wind on evaporation rate. They also use it to observe the work of enzymes in the digestion of foods, to observe a model of the internal gaseous forces within a volcano, or to measure the mass of various solids. Each lesson includes a list of objectives, a materials list, a reference diagram showing how the tank is used, step-by-step procedures, thought-provoking questions for students, and brief teaching notes or explanations of results. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-9633907-0-8), $21.95. Teaching tank, $32.95. Publisher/supplier: Captivation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.81 The Teaching Tank Discovery Book. Vol. 2. Gordon Corbett and David R. Burgess. Nashua, N.H.: Captivation, 1996. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Volume 2 of The Teaching Tank Discovery Book contains directions for 50 activities meant to be done with a simple device called a "teaching tank"—a 2-sided Plexiglas container. The activities, many of which are demonstrations, cover a wide range of topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. For example, students use the tank for determining that displacement is essential to the functioning of a submarine, for observing the influence of temperature on the action of yeast, or for demonstrating that surface tension of water can be broken by soap or detergent. They also use it for observing the separation of plant pigments using paper chromatography or for creating a model of a thermocline. Each lesson includes a list of objectives, a materials list, a reference diagram showing how the tank is used, step-by-step procedures, thought-provoking questions for students, and brief teaching notes or explanations of results. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-9633907-1-6), $21.95. Teaching tank, $32.95. Publisher/supplier: Captivation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.82 Technology Science Mathematics Connection Activities. James LaPorte and Mark Sanders. Developed by TSM [Technology Science Mathematics] Integration Project, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Blacksburg, Va.). New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This unit, in a 3-ring-binder format, contains 6 problem-solving activities designed to facilitate team teaching among technology, science, and mathematics teachers. (The activities are for 3-teacher teams, but implementation suggestions are given for pairs or individual teachers.) During the unit, students must simultaneously apply the concepts, principles, and skills they learn in 3 subject areas—science, mathematics, and technology—to design, construct, and evaluate solutions to stated problems. They are asked to design, construct, and evaluate a working model of a self-propelled toy power boat, a composite beam made from 2 or more recyclable materials, an insulation panel, a magnetically levitated vehicle, a model hydroponic farming system, and a model rocket. A typical activity requires several days to a week in science and mathematics classes and 1 to 3 weeks in a technology laboratory. Each activity has an introductory overview that provides a general idea of the activity and its goal, followed by the technology, science, and mathematics components. In developing a working model of a toy powerboat, for example, students design, construct, and test their boat hulls and propulsion systems in technology class; they study Newton's laws of motion, as well as buoyancy and conservation of energy in science class; and they study symmetry, balance, volume, and surface area in mathematics class. Each activity includes a suggested sequence of instruction, background information, resources, teaching notes for the different components, questions to guide student discussion and thinking, reproducible student sheets, and links to standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Each activity is also correlated with Glencoe textbooks in technology, science, and mathematics. Price: Teacher's resource binder (ISBN 0-02-636947-8), $64.46. Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.83 Thematic Applications: Sciences II. Technology-Based Solutions series. Developed by Twin Discovery Systems. Freeport, N.Y.: Educational Activities, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Thematic Applications: Sciences II is a CD-ROM with 67 computer-based activities that allow students to learn about topics in environmental, life, earth, and physical science. The activities, which can be completed individually or collaboratively, incorporate computer literacy, mathematics, writing, science, social studies,

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science art, and research. They require students to locate, manipulate, organize, and analyze data. Generally, students use the word processor, database, spreadsheet, or draw/paint program to complete each activity. For example, they make a graph from a spreadsheet showing the number of endangered and threatened animal and plant species, they create an illustration of the food chain in a tropical rainforest using a paint or draw program, and they write an environmental newsletter using desktop publishing. They also identify and collect information on the 10 highest active volcanoes in the world, and they research and write a report on the superconducting supercollider. The CD-ROM uses either Claris-Works for Macintosh or Microsoft Works for Windows. Students must know how to use these applications before they can complete the activities. All of the activities are designed so that students can conduct their research on the computer using an electronic encyclopedia or other reference source. Full-video clips and clip art illustrations are included on the CD-ROM for students to use as they create documents or reports. A list of relevant Web sites for obtaining information is provided. Students are encouraged to consult research sources such as the Internet, CD-ROM encyclopedias, books, and periodicals. The CD-ROM comes with a teacher's guide that summarizes the goals, skills, and research requirements for each activity. The activities can be tailored for different grade levels; the time they require depends on the level of detail teachers assign. Price: Unit, $99. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Educational Activities. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 5.84 Transformations: Science, Technology and Society. Developed by American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers [AIME] (New York, N.Y.). New York, N.Y.: AIME, 1991. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Transformations is a series of 8 videotapes of 15 minutes each, with companion teacher's guides, designed to motivate learning and enhance science instruction in middle school classrooms. Hosted by 4 high school members of a rock-'n'-roll band, each video unit explores a major theme through a set of specific topics and connections. The videotapes are on (1) problem solving, (2) geology and mapping, (3) energy resources and the environment, (4) electronics and computers, (5) heat and electrical power, (6) microbes and mining, (7) recycling, and (8) technology and values. Each video features a site visit to a place where young engineers and technicians explain how science and technology relate to their everyday problems. In the video on recycling, for example, the band finds itself overwhelmed by trash while trying to practice at a band member's house. The band makes 2 visits to recycling facilities, where they are hosted by a young recycling supervisor, and the band also investigates the value of recycling. Among the activities, students calculate how much solid waste they generate every year, examine different types of packaging, and construct a model landfill. The video programs maintain a rapid visual pace, and the band members perform songs with lyrics that underscore questions raised in the unit. Each videotape comes with a 16-page teacher's guide that presents background material, summarizes key concepts, offers short follow-up classroom activities and project ideas, and lists research topics and resources such as recent book titles and organizations. Reproducible activity masters are also included. Price: Teacher's guides, with set of 8 videos, $125. Publisher/supplier: Karol Media. Materials: Available locally. 5.85 The Whole Cosmos Catalog of Science Activities. 2nd ed. Joe Abruscato and Jack Hassard. Glenview, Ill.: Good Year Books, 1991. Recommended grade level: 5-8. The Whole Cosmos Catalog of Science Activities is an oversized book containing a collection of more than 275 stand-alone science activities, puzzles, board games, biographies, and creative arts activities that cover topics in life, earth, physical, and aerospace science, along with science and technology subjects such as computers and biomaterials. Among the activities, for example, students make spore prints, grow brine shrimp from fertilized eggs, build a sand sculpture, play pendulum games, or build a small spectroscope. Each idea or activity includes a very brief introduction to concepts, directions for experiments or activities, and black-and-white illustrations or diagrams to guide student work. Some of the activities are abstracted or adapted from various curriculum projects, including the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS), Science—A Process Approach (SAPA), and the Earth Science Curriculum Project (ESCP), among others. All of the activities can be done with inexpensive and readily available materials. Price: $14.95 (ISBN 0-673-16753-4). Publisher/supplier: Scott Foresman/Addison-Wesley. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.