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--> The Community Development Quota Program in Alaska Committee to Review the Community Development Quota Program Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC 1999
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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the committee were supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. This study was supported by Contract No. 50-DKNA-6-90040, Task No. 7-95103 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: Double hoop halibut spirit mask (approximately 24 inches tall) made of driftwood by Yupik artist Lola Ferguson, Nunivak Island, Alaska. Used with permission of the artist; photo provided by the Department of the Interior, Indian Craft Shop, Washington, D.C. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 98-86773 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06082-6 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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--> COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT QUOTA PROGRAM JOHN HOBBIE, Chair, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison PAUL DAYTON, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California DANIEL HUPPERT, University of Washington STEPHEN LANGDON, University of Alaska, Anchorage SETH MACINKO, Alaska Department of Fish And Game MARSHALL SAHLINS, University of Chicago, Illinois CRAIG SEVERANCE, University of Hawaii, Hilo RONALD TROSPER, Northern Arizona University MIRANDA WRIGHT, Doyon Foundation, Alaska Staff CHRIS ELFRING, Study Director (from 1/98) M. ELIZABETH CLARKE, Study Director (until 12/97) GLENN MERRILL, Research Associate JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant
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--> OCEAN STUDIES BOARD KENNETH BRINK (Chairman), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DANIEL BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine ROBERT GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JOHN HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis LOUIS LANZEROTTI, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California, San Diego NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina TERRANCE QUINN, University of Alaska, Juneau JAMES RAY, Shell Oil Company, Houston, Texas GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, Kline Geology Laboratory, New Haven Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant
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--> COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES GEORGE M. HORNBERGER (Chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Policy Institute, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative and Financial Officer SANDI FITZPATRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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--> Preface The Community Development Quota (CDQ) program was designed to improve social and economic conditions in rural western Alaska by helping communities build their capacity to engage in commercial fishing. Like all new efforts, the program has had some start-up difficulties. But as indicated in this review conducted by the Committee to Review the Community Development Quota Program, there has been significant progress and the program offers a great deal of promise for this particular region. Whether a similar program might be effective in other parts of Alaska or in the western Pacific, where there has been interest in the approach, is less clear because of differences in the environments, fishery management strategies, and the nature of the communities. As chair of this committee, and as a member of the Ocean Studies Board, I would like to thank my fellow committee members for their hard work, patience, and cooperation. They were drawn from diverse fields, yet quickly and efficiently dealt with the complexities of the CDQ program. Moreover, they made a special effort to visit many communities involved with the CDQ program and, as a result, they obtained a variety of perspectives and experiences. The many people who contributed are thanked in Appendix F and the sites visited are listed in Chapter 1. We offer special thanks to the following people for their diligence in providing information for the committee's use: Clarence Pautzke and the rest of the staff at the North Pacific Fishery Management Council in Anchorage, Alaska; Kitty Simonds and the staff at the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council in Honolulu, Hawaii; the many NOAA staff who helped (including William Fox, Amy Gautam, Jay Ginter, Sally Bibb, Sam Pooley, and Ray Clarke); Glenn
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--> Haight, Department of Community and Regional Affairs in Juneau, Alaska; and Julie Anderson, formerly with the Department of Community and Regional Affairs in Juneau, Alaska. Our sincere appreciation goes to Elizabeth Clarke, who served as the study's director until she returned to her home institution, the University of Miami; and Chris Elfring, Director of the Polar Research Board, who saw the study through to completion. Each provided important leadership. We would also like to thank research associate Glenn Merrill and project assistant Ann Carlisle for their hard work on this project. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. This independent review provided candid and critical comments that assisted the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and ensured that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Dr. Matt Berman, University of Alaska, Anchorage; Dr. Paul Callaghan, University of Guam, Mangilao; Dr. Nicholas Flanders, Institute of Arctic Studies, Hanover, New Hampshire; Mr. Zeke Grader, Pacific Coast Federation Fishermen's Associations, San Francisco, California; Dr. Patrick V. Kirch, University of California, Berkeley; Dr. Bonnie McCay, Rutgers University, Cook College, New Brunswick, New Jersey; Dr. H. Ronald Pulliam, University of Georgia, Athens; and Dr. Terrance Quinn, University of Alaska, Juneau. While the individuals listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC. This study was requested by Congress as part of the Magnuson-Stevens Act of 1996. The request had two parts, this effort to review Community Development Quotas and another focused on Individual Fishing Quotas. Both reports are part of the Ocean Studies Board's continued effort to provide advice to Congress and the National Marine Fisheries Service on important fisheries issues. JOHN E. HOBBIE CHAIRMAN
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 5 The Bering Sea Fishery 6 The Community Development Quota Program 7 The Community Development Quota Program in the Context of Fisheries Management 10 The Committee's Task 10 The Committee's Approach 11 Broad Policy Context 12 2 Description of the Region and Fishery 15 Biology 15 Cultural Aspects of Bering Sea Fisheries 18 Industry Structure and History 27 3 Overview of the Community Development Program 47 Origin 47 CDQ Management Structure 50 Eligible CDQ Communities 52 Description of the Community Development Groups 52 Allocation of Quota 60 Phases of CDQ Development 60
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--> 4 Evaluation of the Performance of Community Development Quota Program 72 This Committee's Evaluation 73 Community Development Strategies 74 Participation and Benefits 77 Governance and Decision-making 83 Development of Human Resources 86 Program Duration 97 Economic Sustainability and Environmental Stewardship 99 5 Broader Issues and Considerations 103 Some Influential Characteristics 104 Rules of Inclusion and Exclusion 108 CDQ/IFQ Relationships 112 Co-Management/Community Management 115 Summary 117 6 Communities and Fisheries of the Western Pacific 118 Background 120 Findings 133 Final Thoughts 134 7 Conclusions and Recommendations 136 Conclusions and Recommendations 137 Final Thoughts 143 References 144 Appendixes AAuthorizing Legislation 153 BBiographical Sketches of the Committee's Members 155 CAcknowledgments 157 DState of Alaska CDQ Regulations 160 EFederal CDQ Regulations 172 FInvestments Pursued By CDQ Groups 189 GGlossary 208
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