EDUCATING LANGUAGE-MINORITY CHILDREN

Diane August and Kenji Hakuta, Editors

Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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EDUCATING LANGUAGE-MINORITY CHILDREN Diane August and Kenji Hakuta, Editors Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This publication was supported by Purchase Order Number 43-31KV-7-D0002 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education and by the Carnegie Corporation of New York (through a grant to Stanford University). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Educating language-minority children / Diane August and Kenji Hakuta, editors ; Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-06414-7 (pbk.) 1. Linguistic minorities—Education—United States—Evaluation. 2. Education, Bilingual—United States—Evaluation. 3. English language—Study and teaching—United States—Evaluation. 4. Second language acquisition. I. August, Diane. II. Kenji, Hakuta. III. Board on Children, Youth, and Families (U.S.). Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-EnglishProficient and Bilingual Students. LC3731.E373 1998 370.117′5′0973—dc21 97-45429 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Call 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area). This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. First Printing, February 1998 Second Printing, May 1998

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COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPING A RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE EDUCATION OF LIMITED-ENGLISH-PROFICIENT AND BILINGUAL STUDENTS KENJI HAKUTA (Chair), School of Education, Stanford University JAMES A. BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington DONNA CHRISTIAN, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, D.C. RICHARD P. DURÁN, Graduate School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara CARL K. KAESTLE, School of Education, History and Public Policy, Brown University DAVID KENNY, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut GAEA LEINHARDT, Learning Research and Development Center and Department of Education, University of Pittsburgh ALBA ORTIZ, College of Education, The University of Texas at Austin LUCINDA PEASE-ALVAREZ, School of Education, University of California at Santa Cruz CATHERINE SNOW, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University DEBORAH STIPEK, Department of Education, University of California at Los Angeles DIANE AUGUST, Study Director CAROLE SPALDING, Senior Project Assistant

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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES JACK P. SHONKOFF (Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University DAVID V.B. BRITT, Children's Television Workshop, New York City LARRY BUMPASS, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin FERNANDO A. GUERRA, San Antonio Metropolitan Health District, Texas BERNARD GUYER, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Johns Hopkins University ALETHA C. HUSTON, Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas, Austin RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University Hospital SARA MCLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University ROBERT MICHAEL, Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco MARTHA PHILLIPS, The Concord Coalition, Washington, D.C. JULIUS B. RICHMOND, Department of Social Medicine, Harvard University Medical School TIMOTHY M. SANDOS, TCI Central, Inc., Denver, Colorado DEBORAH STIPEK, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles DIANA TAYLOR, Women's Health Program, Department of Family Health Care Nursing, University of California, San Francisco GAIL WILENSKY, Project Hope, Bethesda, Maryland EVAN CHARNEY (Liaison), Council, Institute of Medicine RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison), Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Institute of Medicine ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (Liaison), Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education DEBORAH A. PHILLIPS, Executive Director ANNE BRIDGMAN, Program Officer for Communications DRUSILLA BARNES, Administrative Associate NANCY GEYELIN, Project Assistant

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Contents     PREFACE   ix 1   OVERVIEW   1     Purpose and Scope of the Report   2     Terminology   3     Background   4     Organization of the Report   9 2   BILINGUALISM AND SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNING   11     Findings   11     Implications   19 3   COGNITIVE ASPECTS OF SCHOOL LEARNING: LITERACY DEVELOPMENT AND CONTENT LEARNING   21     Findings   21     Implications   30 4   THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF SCHOOL LEARNING   33     Findings   33     Implications   37

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5   STUDENT ASSESSMENT   41     Findings   42     Implications   51 6   PROGRAM EVALUATION   55     Findings   55     Implications   70 7   STUDIES OF SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM EFFECTIVENESS   73     Findings   73     Implications   85     Appendix   87     CONCLUDING REMARKS   89     REFERENCES   91     BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND STAFF   113     OTHER REPORTS FROM THE BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES   118

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Preface This short volume summarizes portions of a much longer report entitled Improving Schooling for Language-Minority Children: A Research Agenda, published in 1997. The longer report was the work of the Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students, established under the auspices of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (CBASSE) of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Eleven experts—representing the areas of language, cognitive, and child development; bilingual and multicultural education; education evaluation; assessment; and educational history—reviewed and discussed existing research relevant to the education of English-language learners and bilingual students and made recommendations for the next generation of research. In addition to the substantive areas, the committee investigated issues surrounding the infrastructure for research in this field and made recommendations for its improvement. Whereas the first report makes recommendations for the next generation of research and improvements in the research infrastructure, this report was written for educators and policymakers. As such, it summarizes information in the first report that is likely to be of most interest to this audience—research findings on bilingualism and second-language learning, the cognitive aspects of school learning, the social context of school learning, student assessment, program evaluation, and school and

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classroom effectiveness. In addition, it considers the implications for educational practice of these disparate domains of research. The committee wishes to acknowledge the support of the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students, the Office for Educational Research and Improvement at the U.S. Department of Education, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York (through a grant to Stanford University) for the preparation of this summary report. Support for preparation of the full report on which this summary is based was provided by several offices within the U.S. Department of Education—the Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Language Affairs, the Office of the Under Secretary, and the Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Funding was also provided by the Spencer Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Pew Charitable Trusts, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (through a grant to Stanford University). Several commissioned papers contributed to this report. We thank Luis Moll, Rosi Andrade, and Norma Gonzalez for "Rethinking Culture, Community and Schooling: Implications for the Education of Bilingual Students"; Patton Tabors for "Second Language Acquisition and Preschool Education: Research Findings, Methods, Implications, and Future Directions"; Claude Goldenberg for "Effective Schooling for LEP Students: The School Domain"; and Nitza Hidalgo for "Parental and Community Involvement in the Education of Limited English Proficient and Bilingual Students." The committee benefited from the support of staff from the Division of Social Sciences: Faith Mitchell provided ongoing advice and encouragement; Janine Bilyeu and Carole Spalding provided administrative assistance; and Rona Briere, as editor, contributed to the presentation of the committee's views. Diane August, Study Director Kenji Hakuta, Chair Committee on Developing a Research Agenda on the Education of Limited-English-Proficient and Bilingual Students