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--> Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Fifth Report Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Transportation Research Board National Research Council Washington, D.C. 1999
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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DTNH22-94-G-07414 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 99-62352 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06443-0 Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. HA-270 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3344 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> STANDING COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES TREVOR O. JONES (chair), NAE,1 Biomec, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio ALEXIS T. BELL, NAE, University of California, Berkeley HARRY E. COOK, NAE, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison NORMAN GJOSTEIN, NAE, University of Michigan, Dearborn DAVID HAGEN, Ford Motor Company (retired), Dearborn, Michigan JOHN HEYWOOD, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FRITZ KALHAMMER, Electric Power Research Institute (retired), Palo Alto, California JOHN G. KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD H. KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois CRAIG MARKS, NAE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JOHN NEWMAN, NAE, University of California, Berkeley JEROME G. RIVARD, NAE, Global Technology and Business Development, Harrison Township, Michigan VERNON P. ROAN, University of Florida, Palm Beach Gardens Subgroup on Systems Analysis and Electrical and Electronic Systems JEROME G. RIVARD (chair) JOHN HEYWOOD JOHN G. KASSAKIAN Subgroup on Batteries JOHN NEWMAN (chair) FRITZ KALHAMMER VERNON P. ROAN Subgroup on Fuels CRAIG MARKS (chair) ALEXIS T. BELL DAVID E. FOSTER HAROLD H. KUNG 1 NAE = National Academy of Engineering
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--> Subgroup on Fuel Cells VERNON P. ROAN (chair) ALEXIS T. BELL FRITZ KALHAMMER HAROLD H. KUNG JOHN NEWMAN Subgroup on Internal-Combustion Engines and Emissions Control DAVID E. FOSTER (chair) ALEXIS T. BELL DAVID HAGEN JOHN HEYWOOD CRAIG MARKS Subgroup on Materials HARRY E. COOK (chair) NORMAN GJOSTEIN DAVID HAGEN Subgroup on Cost Analysis TREVOR O. JONES (chair) DAVID HAGEN JEROME G. RIVARD Liaison Member from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems JAMES SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) NAN HUMPHREY, senior program officer, Transportation Research Board SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, senior project assistant and financial associate, (BEES) CAROL R. ARENBERG, editor, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems
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--> BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L. HIRSCH (chair), Advanced Power Technologies, Inc., Washington, D.C. RICHARD MESERVE (vice chair), Covington and Burling, Washington, D.C. RICHARD E. BALZHISER, NAE,1 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (retired), Menlo Park, California EVERETT H. BECKNER, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico E. GAIL DE PLANQUE, NAE, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired), Potomac, Maryland WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE, University of Texas, Austin CHRISTOPHER FLAVIN, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM FULKERSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) and University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROY G. GORDON, NAS,2 Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts EDWIN E. KINTNER, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Norwich, Vermont ROBERT W. SHAW, JR., Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire K. ANNE STREET, GEO-CENTERS, Rockville, Maryland JAMES SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JACK WHITE, The Winslow Group, LLC, Fairfax, Virginia JOHN J. WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Company (retired), Princeton, New Jersey Liaison from the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RUTH M. DAVIS, NAE, Pymatuning Group, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, California Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director RICHARD CAMPBELL, program officer SUSANNA CLARENDON, financial associate CRISTELLYN BANKS, project assistant 1 NAE = National Academy of Engineering 2 NAS = National Academy of Sciences
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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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--> Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank all the members of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles who contributed significantly of their time and effort to this National Research Council study, whether by giving presentations at meetings, providing responses to committee requests for information, or hosting site visits. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of organizations outside the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles that provided information on advanced vehicle technologies and development initiatives. Finally, the chairman wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems of the National Research Council for their hard work organizing and planning committee meetings and for their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the follow individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gary Borman, University of Wisconsin; L. Gary Byrd, Consulting Engineer; Dale Compton, Purdue University; Robert Frosch, Harvard University; Theodore Geballe, Stanford University; Phillip Myers, University of Wisconsin; F. Stan Settles, University of Southern California; Karl J.
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--> Springer, Southwest Research Institute (retired); Edgar Starke, Jr., University of Virginia; Supramaniam Srivnivasan, Princeton University; and Brijesh Vyas, Lucent Technologies. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC.
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 11 2 Development of Vehicle Subsystems 16 Candidate Systems 16 Internal-Combustion Reciprocating Engines 17 Fuel Cells 29 Electrochemical Energy Storage 36 Flywheels 41 Power Electronics and Electrical Systems 42 Structural Materials 44 3 Systems Analysis 54 Program Status and Plans 55 Areas of Concern 57 Recommendations 57 4 Major Crosscutting Issues 59 Adequacy and Balance of the PNGV Program 59 Major Achievements and Technical Barriers 61 Vehicle Crashworthiness 66 Fuel Strategy 68 Emissions Trade-offs 70
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--> Goals 1 and 2 72 Government Involvement and Interfaces 75 5 PNGV's Response to the Phase 4 Report 78 References 82 Appendixes ABiographical Sketches of Committee Members 87 BLetter from PNGV 93 CStatement of Task 100 DCommittee Meetings and Other Activities 102 EList of Recommendations 105 FUnited States Council for Automotive Research Consortia 109 Acronyms 110
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--> Tables and Figures Tables 2-1 Current Performance Characteristics and Targets of CIDI Engine Systems 20 2-2 Design Targets and Present Performance for Short-Term Energy Storage 37 2-3 Weight-Reduction Targets for the Goal 3 Vehicle 46 2-4 Materials Road Map: Weight-Savings Potential and Technical Challenges 47 2-5 Material Cost Targets 49 4-1 PNGV Total Government Budget Authority 60 4-2 Comparisons of Square-Tube Axial Energy Absorbers 68 Figures 2-1 Alternatives for energy conversion 18 2-2 PNGV design space 45 2-3 Multimatics PNGV hybrid-material body structure 50
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