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Global Ocean Science Toward an Integrated Approach Ocean Studies Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1999
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-9634773. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. Libarary of Congress Cataloging-in Publication Data Global ocean science : toward an integrated approach / Ocean Studies Board, commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-06564-X (casebound) 1. Oceanography—Research—International cooperation. 2. Oceanography—Research—Government policy—United States. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Ocean Studies Board. GC57 .G55 1999 551.46′0072—dc21 98-58045 Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach is available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; 1-800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. Printed in the United States of America
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Committee On Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs RANA FINE, Chair, University of Miami, Florida CHARLES COX, University of California, San Diego WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Masssachusetts ELLEN DRUFFEL, University of California, Irvine JEFFREY FOX, Texas A&M University, College Station ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Manoa JAMES MURRAY, University of Washington, Seattle NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville THOMAS POWELL, University of California, Berkeley MICHAEL ROMAN, University of Maryland THOMAS ROYER, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia LYNDA SHAPIRO, University of Oregon, Charleston ANNE THOMPSON, National Aeronautics and Space Administration ANDREW WEAVER, University of Victoria, British Columbia Staff DAN WALKER, Study Director SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant
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Ocean Studies Board KENNETH BRINK, Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ALICE ALLDREDGE, University of California, Santa Barbara DAVID BRADLEY, Pennsylvania State University, State College DAN BROMLEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison OTIS BROWN, University of Miami, Florida WILLIAM CURRY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RANA FINE, University of Miami, Florida CARL FRIEHE, University of California, Irvine ROBERT GAGOSIAN, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JOHN HOBBIE, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts EILEEN HOFMANN, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia EDWARD HOUDE, University of Maryland, Solomons JOHN KNAUSS, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett ROBERT KNOX, University of California, San Diego RAY KRONE, University of California, Davis LOUIS LANZEROTTI, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey NANCY MARCUS, Florida State University, Tallahassee B. GREGORY MITCHELL, University of California, San Diego NEIL OPDYKE, University of Florida, Gainesville MICHAEL ORBACH, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, North Carolina TERRANCE QUINN, University of Alaska, Juneau JAMES RAY, Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, Texas GEORGE SOMERO, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California PAUL STOFFA, University of Texas, Austin KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director EDWARD R. URBAN, JR., Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer SUSAN ROBERTS, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Associate GLENN MERRILL, Research Associate SHARI MAGUIRE, Senior Project Assistant LORA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant JENNIFER WRIGHT, Senior Project Assistant ANN CARLISLE, Project Assistant
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Commission On Geosciences, Environment, And Resources GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK R. ATKINS, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JERRY F. FRANKLIN, University of Washington, Seattle B. JOHN GARRICK, PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, California THOMAS E. GRAEDEL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DEBRA KNOPMAN, Progressive Foundation, Washington, D.C. KAI N. LEE, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts JUDITH E. MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RICHARD A. MESERVE, Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. HUGH C. MORRIS, Canadian Global Change Program, Delta, British Columbia RAYMOND A. PRICE, Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario H. RONALD PULLIAM, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia THOMAS C. SCHELLING, University of Maryland, College Park VICTORIA J. TSCHINKEL, Landers and Parsons, Tallahassee, Florida E-AN ZEN, University of Maryland, College Park MARY LOU ZOBACK, United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California Staff ROBERT M. HAMILTON, Executive Director GREGORY H. SYMMES, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Administrative & Financial Officer SANDI FITZPA TRICK, Administrative Associate MARQUITA SMITH, Administrative Assistant/Technology Analyst
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility of advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Preface Since its formation in 1985, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) has played a leading role in promoting the vitality of ocean-related research. The OSB continues to work with federal agencies to identify new research opportunities, establish research priorities, and improve the overall quality of ocean research. OSB activities in the past have ranged from reviews of specific ocean science programs to comprehensive examinations of the field of oceanography. The 1992 report Oceanography in the Next Decade: Building New Partnerships not only provided a retrospective analysis of the field, but also outlined goals for the near future. If the United States is to maintain its leadership role in the ocean sciences, the human and physical resources available to the nation in this area must be maintained and improved. This report, Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach, continues this tradition by drawing upon the strengths of the ocean science community to provide advice on how major oceanographic research programs should fit into the nation's overall ocean research strategy. The report examines the impact these programs have had on our understanding of the oceans and on the way basic oceanographic research is conducted. The report then provides a number of recommendations intended to help ensure that these programs yield a maximum scientific return on the nation's investment, and stimulate research in a number of important areas. KENNETH BRINK, CHAIR OCEAN STUDIES BOARD
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Acknowledgments The Committee on Major U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs is grateful to the many individuals who played a significant role in the completion of this study. The committee met six times, and extends its gratitude to the following individuals who appeared before the full committee or otherwise provided background information and discussed pertinent issues: Karl Banse, John Bash, Melbourne Briscoe, Otis Brown, Tony Busalacchi, Alan Chave, Larry Clark, Curt Collins, Robert Correll, Tim Cowles, Tudor Davies, Russ Davis, David Epp, Bob Gagosian, Eileen Hofmann, Eric Itsweire, Kenneth Johnson, Dick Lambert, Bernie Lettau, Eric Lindstrom, Bruce Malfait, Chistopher Mooers, Worth Nowlin, John Orcutt, Gustav Paffenhofer, Michael Purdy, Steve Ramberg, Michael Reeve, Don Rice, Sharon Smith, Detlef Stammer, Phil Taylor, Keith Thompson, Maurice Tivey, Ken Turgeon, Robert Wall, and S. Jeffress Williams. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: David Bradley, The Pennsylvania State University; James Coleman, Louisiana State University; Richard Goody, Harvard University; Grant Gross, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory; Robert Holman, Oregon State University; Cindy Lee, State University of New York; Pati Matrai, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Science;
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Judith McDowell, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Fred Spiess, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; and Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee also extends its thanks to the following chairs, participants, and staff of the major oceanographic programs listed in this report who submitted questionnaires and provided background material and data for consideration by the committee: Worth Nowlin, Piers Chapman, Lewis Rothstein, Don Olson, Jochem Marotzke, Greg Johnson, Hugh Ducklow, Mary Zawoysky, Hugh Livingston, Karen Von Damm, Roger Larson, Michael Arthur, Ellen Kappel, and Peter Webster. The committee is grateful for the assistance provided by the following individuals who provided additional background material and data for consideration by the committee: Jack Bash and Annette DeSilva. For their assistance in data gathering and preparation, and other consultation, the committee extends its thanks to the following individuals: Constance Carter, Barbara A. Butler, Adrienne Davis, James Igoe, Julie Walko, Melissa Ralston, and Margaret Booth.
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Contents Executive Summary 1 1. Introduction 7 Focus of this Study 8 The Committee's Approach 10 2. The Role of Major Oceanographic Programs 17 The International Decade of Ocean Exploration 18 The Growth of Major Oceanographic Programs 21 Ocean Sciences at NSF 22 The National Academy of Sciences and Oceanography 31 3. Enhancing Coordination and Information Sharing 37 Development of Long- and Short-Term Research Goals 37 Coordination of Major Field Programs 40 Coordination of Synthesis Activities 43 Lessons from Existing Programs 44 4. Accomplishments, Impacts, and Legacies 48 The Role of Major Oceanographic Programs in Our Understanding of the Oceans 48 Technology and Research Facilities Development 53 Impact on Education 59 Collegiality in the Oceanographic Academic Community 62
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5. Gaps and Follow-On Activities 71 Gaps Within and Among Programs 71 Infrastructure Related Gaps 76 Potential Follow-on Activities 79 Addressing Gaps 81 6. Program Planning, Structure, and Organization 83 Nature of Major Oceanographic Programs: A Comparison 83 Future Program Initiation 90 Structure of Future Major Programs 91 7. Lessons for the Future: The Role of the National Science Foundation 96 The Role of the Ocean Sciences Division of NSF 96 Lessons Learned 97 Management of Major Programs 100 8. Cited References 103 Appendixes ACommittee Biographies 109 BAcronyms and Abbreviations 112 CBackground Questionnaire 116 DScientific Steering Committee Perspectives Questionnaire 120 EWebsite Questionnaire 126 FSummary Budget Data 128 GNational Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences 137 HMajor U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs: Major Publications 144 IMajor U.S. Oceanographic Research Programs: Textbook References 150 JSelected Responses to World Wide Web and Scientific Steering Committee Questionnaires 152 Index 159
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