ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION

Committee on Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching

Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee

Center for Education

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION Committee on Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee Center for Education NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the Hewlett Foundation. Opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07176-3 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press (http://www.nap.edu)2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285Washington, D.C.20055 800-624-6242202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION COMMITTEE ON ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHING N. Ronald Morris, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Chair Daniel Hamermesh, University of Texas Kimberly Tanner, University of California, San Francisco Kristina Peterson, Lakeside School, Seattle, Washington Mary Long, University of Texas Wendy Kopp, Teach for America Staff Marilyn Baker, Associate Executive Director Peter Henderson, Project Officer, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel George Reinhart, Project Officer, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Jan Tuomi, Project Officer, Center for Education Sarah Choudhury, Project Coordinator Cynthia Holmes, Consultant Krystyna Isaacs, Consultant

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMITTEE M. R. C. Greenwood (IOM), University of California, Santa Cruz, Chair John D. Wiley, University of Wisconsin, Vice-Chair Kenneth Arrow (NAS/IOM), Stanford University Ronald Ehrenberg, Indiana University Carlos Gutierrez, California State University, Los Angeles Nancy B. Jackson, Sandia National Laboratories Donald Johnson (NAE), Grain Processing Company Martha A. Krebs, Institute for Defense Analysis Stephen J. Lukasik, Independent Consultant Claudia I. Mitchell-Kernan, University of California, Los Angeles Michael Nettles, University of Michigan Debra W. Stewart, Council of Graduate Schools Tadataka Yamada (IOM), SmithKline Beecham Corporation Thomas Young (NAE), Lockeed Martin Corporation (Retired) Robert C. Richardson (NAS), Cornell University (Ex Officio) Staff Charlotte Kuh, Executive Director Marilyn Baker, Associate Executive Director

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION CENTER FOR EDUCATION Board of Overseers Donald Kenndedy (NAS/IOM), Stanford University, Chair Martha Darling, Independent Consultant, Vice Chair Elizabeth Carvallas, Essex High School Susan Fuhrman, University of Pennsylvania Phillip Griffiths (NAS), Institute for Advanced Study Dudley Herschbach (NAS), Harvard University Richard Jager, University of North Carolina-Greensboro Jo Anne Vasquez, Mesa Public Schools Hyman Bass (NAS), University of Michigan (Ex-Officio) Board of Advisors Donald Kennedy (NAS/IOM), Stanford University, Chair Martha Darling, Independent Consultant, Vice Chair Jerome Grossman (IOM), Lion Gate Management Corp. William J. Rutter (NAS), Chiron Corporation

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION PREFACE For many reasons, the idea of attracting Ph.D.s to secondary school education suggests a difficult or, some would say, impossible concept. The need for secondary science and mathematics teachers is great, but is this the right group from which to recruit? Ph.D.s are not educated for this purpose, and most are probably better suited for careers in higher education, industry, or government that they have typically chosen. At the same time, they constitute a widely diverse population, with differing goals, personalities, and educational interests. And many share a desire to make science and math exciting to young people. Our committee became involved in this study because we were interested in the potential benefits of brining more Ph.D.s into the secondary schools. For all the reasons stated in the report, we are now convinced that an effort to increase the number of Ph.D.s in the schools will make a significant qualitative contribution to the improvement of science and mathematics education. We also believe that Ph.D.s, who are trained to be inquisitive, to be creative, and to challenge established wisdom, will provide new leadership and be catalysts for change in science and mathematics education throughout their careers. We anticipate that the presence of Ph.D.s in the schools will provide an opportunity to generate new links between the K-12 system and the universites and will provide a new career path for Ph.D.s who seek to use their skills outside the traditional research setting. This project has been organized in three phases. The current phase (phase one) is an exploration of the interest of Ph.D.s in secondary school positions and incentives that states, school districts, and others could use to attract them to such positions. Drawing on the results of phase one, and through a dialogue with those interested in secondary school science and mathematics education, the second phase will design demonstration programs to attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school positions. Finally, the third phase will implement these demonstration programs to place Ph.D.s in such positions in selected states. The first phase of this project was carried out under the auspices of the National Research Council's Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel (OSEP), in conjunction with the Center for Education (CFE). To identify the potential interest of Ph.D.s in secondary school teaching and how they might be attracted to such positions, our committee carried out a national survey of graduate students and recent Ph.D.s. We also conducted a series of interviews with Ph.D.s working as secondary school teachers and educational administrators at the K-12 and postsecondary level. This report summarizes the findings from these investigations, with suggestions to the committee overseeing phase two of the project.

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION The charge of this committee was very narrowly directed to two issues: (1) is there a potential to attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school teaching and other leadership positions, and (2) what incentives would be useful for states, school districts, and others in attracting them to such positions? The charge for the phase one committee was primarily to provide information to the committee overseeing the second phase of the project as it deliberates on how demonstration programs might be designed. The committee was not asked to examine or substantiate the premises that underlie the charge, nor was it asked to implement its findings. Nor was it charged with assessing the potential benefits of placing science and mathematics Ph.D.s in secondary school teaching. These suggested benefits and their costs need to be made explicit and carefully evaluated by the phase-two study committee. However, the members of this committee have been convinced by our survey and interview data that a program to attract science and mathematics Ph.D.s to secondary school classrooms is potentially feasible, that it can be of significant value to the scientific and technical education of secondary school students, and that it will also provide a very rewarding new career opportunity for a select group of forward looking Ph.D. scientists and mathematicians. N. Ronald Morris Chair Committee on Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Committee on Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching benefited from the contributions of many people. First and foremost, we wish to thank the Hewlett Foundation for providing funding for the initial phase of the project. We wish to thank all the graduate students and postdoctorates at Duke University, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, The University of Texas, the University of California, San Francisco, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center who gave us their time and input by participating in focus groups. We also want to thank Michael Marder at the University of Texas, A. Leigh DeNeef at Duke University, and Nancy Hutchison at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for their assistance in setting up the focus groups. The project could not have been completed without the efforts of the two independent consultants who assisted with the project. They are Krystyna Isaacs, who conducted all interviews of Ph.D.s currently employed in science and mathematics secondary school education, and Cynthia Holmes, who facilitated all the focus groups and conducted all interviews of secondary school administrators. Finally, I wish to thank the members of the Committee for their contributions to the study and the final report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the study committee in making its report as sound as possible and to insure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. I wish to thank the following for their participation in this review of the report: Camilla P. Benbow, Vanderbilt University; Roman Czujko, American Institute of Physics; Norma Davila, University of Puerto Rico; Sherry Hans, Pew Charitable Trust; Mozel Lang, Michigan Department of Education; Carolyn Morse University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Steve Rakow, University of Houston-Clear Lake; Gary Byrd, consulting engineer, report review moderator; and John Wiley, University of Wisconsin, Madison, report review coordinator. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The project was aided by the help of the NRC staff Marilyn Baker, OSEP deputy executive director; Peter Henderson, George Reinhart, and Jan Tuomi, project officers; Sarah Choudhury, project coordinator; and Rita Johnson, who provided editorial assistance. N. Ronald Morris Chair Committee on Attracting Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s to Secondary School Teaching

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   INTRODUCTION   11      Background   11      Scope of Study   20      Methods of Study   22      Overview of The Report   23  2   WILL PH.D.S CONSIDER CAREERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION?   25      Survey Methods and Response   25      Career Aspirations   28      Interest in Secondary Education   30      Aspects of a Program to Attract Science and Mathematics Ph.D.s To Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education   34      Interest in Other K-12 Education Positions   41      Summary   43  3   PERSPECTIVES ON PH.D.S IN SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION   45      Ph.D.s in Secondary School Science and Mathematics Education   46      Which Ph.D.s?   47      Preparation for Teaching   48      Practical Aspects of Transitioning to the Secondary School Environment   48      Ph.D.s in the Secondary School Work Environment   50  4   DISCUSSION   53      Findings   53      Guidance for Demonstration Programs   57     REFERENCES   64     APPENDIXES    A   Study Methodology   67  B   Focus Group Summaries   75  C   Survey of Graduate Students and Recent Ph.D.s: Instruments and Protocols   95

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ATTRACTING SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS PH.D.S TO SECONDARY SCHOOL EDUCATION  D   Interviews with Ph.D.s in K-12 Science and Mathematics Education   127  E   Interviews with Administrators   139  F   Biographies of Committee Members   159