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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Air Force Science and Technology Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. F49620-01-1-0438 between the National Academy of Sciences and United States Air Force. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08623-X Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002115988 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies COMMITTEE ON IMPLICATIONS OF EMERGING MICROAND NANOTECHNOLOGIES STEVEN R.J. BRUECK, Chair, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque S. THOMAS PICRAUX, Vice Chair, Arizona State University, Tempe JOHN H. BELK, The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri ROBERT J. CELOTTA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland WILLIAM C. HOLTON, North Carolina State University, Raleigh SIEGFRIED W. JANSON, The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles WAY KUO, Texas A&M University, College Station DAVID J. NAGEL, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. P. ANDREW PENZ, Science Applications International Corporation, Richardson, Texas ALBERT P. PISANO, University of California, Berkeley ROSEMARY L. SMITH, University of California, Davis PETER J. STANG, University of Utah, Salt Lake City GEORGE W. SUTTON, SPARTA, Arlington, Virginia WILLIAM M. TOLLES, Consultant, Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT J. TREW, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg MARY H. YOUNG, HRL Laboratories, Malibu, California Liaison Air Force Science and Technology Board ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff JAMES C. GARCIA, Study Director JAMES E. KILLIAN, Study Director JAMES MYSKA, Research Associate PAMELA A. LEWIS, Senior Project Assistant LINDA D. VOSS, Technical Writer
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies AIR FORCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD ROBERT A. FUHRMAN, Chair, Lockheed Corporation (retired), Pebble Beach, California R. NOEL LONGUEMARE, Vice Chair, Private Consultant, Ellicott City, Maryland LYNN CONWAY, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor WILLIAM H. CRABTREE, Consultant, Cincinnati, Ohio LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, President, CEO, and Chairman of the Board, Areté Associates, Arlington, Virginia STEVEN D. DORFMAN, Hughes Electronics (retired), Los Angeles, California EARL H. DOWELL, Mechanical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Gas Turbine Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts DELORES M. ETTER, Professor, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland ALFRED B. GSCHWENDTNER, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts BRADFORD W. PARKINSON, Stanford University, Stanford, California RICHARD R. PAUL, Vice President, Strategic Development, Phantom Works, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington ROBERT F. RAGGIO, Executive Vice President, Dayton Aerospace, Inc., Dayton, Ohio ELI RESHOTKO, Professor Emeritus, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, Professor, Materials Engineering Department, University of Maryland, College Park EUGENE L. TATTINI, Deputy Director, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, Research Associate
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Preface Biology long ago adopted the micro- and nanoscales. The machinery of genomics is based on nanoscale interactions, and mosquitoes, ants, termites, and other insects are exquisite examples of autonomous, intelligent micromachines that engage in both independent and cooperative (swarm) behavior. While mankind’s deliberate use of nanotechnology goes back at least as far as the firing of Venetian glass during the Renaissance, only today are we developing the scientific base—theory, fabrication science, materials sophistication, and measurement capabilities—for a full-scale assault on nanotechnology. Technology has been steadily moving into the micro- and nanoscale realms for some time. Fabrication technologies for integrated circuits are at the edge of the nanoscale, with gate lengths less than 100 nm in the most advanced microprocessors. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices are integrating mechanical motion (and other properties) on the microscale with electronics and generating new approaches to applications and even new industries. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Science, Technology, and Engineering requested that the Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies, established by the National Research Council, assess the implications of emerging micro- and nanotechnologies for the Air Force. The committee was asked to characterize the state of the art in micro- and nanotechnologies, review the adequacy of military investment strategies for micro-and nanotechnologies, and recommend research areas to accelerate the opportunities for exploiting these technologies in Air Force mission capabilities and systems.
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies The committee received briefings from experts in varied aspects of micro-and nanotechnologies from within and outside the Air Force. Four implications of these evolving technologies are clear: ever-increasing information capabilities, a relentless drive toward miniaturization, new materials with new functionality based on nanoscale structuring, and higher-level systems integration, with increased functionality leading ultimately to autonomous systems. Some of the challenges are as large as the opportunities, including translating the unique properties of micro- and nanostructures into macro effects and manufacturing micro- and nanomaterials and components inexpensively on a large scale. Suffice it to say, micro- and nanotechnologies are an important area of research opportunity at a productive stage of development. The impacts, while not entirely predictable, can be characterized in general terms and will clearly be significant. The Air Force should harness the power of these technologies for its missions. The scope of this study was daunting, covering many orders of magnitude in spatial scale and many decades of future progress. The committee is indebted to the experts, both within and outside the Air Force, who took the time to share their insights. The committee greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members James Garcia, James Killian, Pamela Lewis, and James Myska and consultant Linda Voss in the development and production of this report. Steven R.J. Brueck, Chair S. Thomas Picraux, Vice Chair Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Larry R. Dalton, University of Washington, Seattle Elsa Reichmanis, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey Lourdes Salamanca-Riba, University of Maryland, College Park Henry I. Smith, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge T.S. Sudarshan, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia Richard Taylor, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Bristol, United Kingdom George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Royce W. Murray, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies responsible for making certain than an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 20 Background, 20 Statement of Task, 22 What We Mean by “Micro” and “Nano,” 22 Report Organization and Methodology, 27 References, 29 2 EXPECTATIONS FOR FUTURE MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES 30 Overview of Current Studies, 30 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 30 MEMS Industry Group 2001 Annual Report, 34 The National Nanotechnology Initiative, 36 Worldwide Perspective, 38 References, 39 3 MAJOR AREAS OF OPPORTUNITY 40 Information Technology, 40 Introduction, 40 Computing Capabilities—Devices, 41 Computing Capabilities—Architectures, 56 Storage, 61
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Communications, 64 Signal and Information Processing and Data Fusion, 74 Findings and Recommendations, 78 Sensors, 80 Introduction, 80 Discrete Versus Distributed Sensors, 81 Projected Impact, 81 Sensors for Chemical and Biological Agents, 89 Self-Sensing, 91 Distributed Sensor Systems, 95 Findings and Recommendations, 98 Biologically Inspired Materials and Systems, 99 Biomimetics for Improved Sensing, Communications, and Signal Processing, 100 Enhanced Human Performance—The Machine as Part of the Man, 102 Findings and Recommendations, 103 Structural Materials, 103 Introduction, 103 Lightweight Materials, 105 Improved Coatings, 107 Multifunctional Structures, 108 Materials for MEMS, 110 Technical Issues and Areas for Development, 111 Findings and Recommendations, 112 Aerodynamics, Propulsion, and Power, 113 Flight Vehicle Aerodynamics, 114 Air-Breathing Vehicle Propulsion and Power, 116 Launch Vehicle Propulsion, 121 Spacecraft Propulsion, 123 Space Power Generation, 129 Findings and Recommendations, 131 References and Notes, 131 4 ENABLING MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES 143 Fabrication (Patterning) Approaches, 143 Lithography and Pattern Transfer, 145 Self-Assembly, 152 Integration of Traditional Lithographic and Self-Assembly Patterning Approaches, 154 Integration of Nanodevices with Mainstream Silicon Technology, 157 Assembly, 158 Directed Assembly, 158
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies DNA-Assisted Assembly, 160 Packaging, 163 Reliability and Manufacturability, 165 New Techniques for Reliability Improvement, 166 Manufacturing Yield and Reliability, 166 Commercialization, 167 Identification of Products Manufactured in the New Technology, 168 Wide Access to the Technical Details of the New Technology, 168 Enlightened Corporate Management, 169 Sufficient Reduction in Product Cost, 169 Government Role in Providing Wide Access to New Technology, 169 Effect of Manufacturing Complexity on Commercialization, 172 Case Study: Texas Instruments and the Digital Mirror Device, 173 Findings and Recommendations, 176 References, 178 5 AIR FORCE MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGY PROGRAMS AND OPPORTUNITIES 182 Impacts of Micro- and Nanotechnologies on Air Force Missions, 182 Current Investments by the Air Force in Micro- and Nanotechnologies, 183 AFRL Research Portfolio in Micro- and Nanotechnologies, 184 AFOSR Basic Research Programs in Nanotechnology, 184 Trends in DoD and Air Force Research Funding, 190 Air Force Investment Strategy and Challenges, 195 Findings and Recommendations, 197 References, 199 6 OPPORTUNITIES IN MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES 200 Overarching Themes, 200 Increased Information Capabilities, 200 Miniaturization, 201 New Engineered Materials, 202 Increased Autonomy and Functionality, 202 Air Force Missions as Drivers for Micro- and Nanotechnologies, 203 Areas of Opportunity, 204 Space Vehicles and Systems, 205 Weapon Systems, 211 Air Vehicles and Systems, 212 Finding and Recommendation, 215 References, 215
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies 7 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 216 Critical Findings and Recommendations, 216 Technology, 216 Policy, 220 Specific Findings and Recommendations, 222 APPENDIXES A Manufacturing, Design, and Reliability, 229 B Committee Biographies, 232 C Meetings and Activities, 239
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Figures, Tables, and Boxes FIGURES 1-1 Model of a MEMS safety switch, 23 1-2 Atomic force microscopic image of InAs quantum dots, 24 1-1-1 Dimensional scale, 25 1-2-1 The SNAP-1 nanosatellite, 28 2-1 Integrated circuit growth, 31 2-2 Lithography half-pitch feature size versus time, 31 2-3 Possible roadmap, 34 2-4 Worldwide government R&D spending on nanotechnology, 39 3-1 Power versus frequency for high-frequency microwave devices, 51 3-2 Yearly radiation dose in silicon, 54 3-3 Radiation environment for circular equatorial orbits, 55 3-4 Diode laser thresholds, 66 3-5 InAs quantum dashes grown on InP, 68 3-6 Optical MEMS examples, 71 3-7 RF MEMS capacitors, 73 3-8 Schematic of a situational awareness system, 75 3-9 Paradigm shifts in software, 77 3-10 Micromachined Sun sensor, 88 3-11 Boeing/Endevco pressure belt, 92
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies 3-12 A typical pressure-sensitive paint result for a wind tunnel model of a transonic transport airplane, 93 3-13 The Very Large Array, 95 3-14 Micromachined gas turbine engine, 118 3-15 Silicon turbine from the micromachined gas turbine engine, 119 3-16 Planar glass layers for a batch-producible cold gas propulsion module, 124 3-17 Spacecraft power for INTELSAT satellites, 126 3-18 Use of a momentum-exchange tether to perform an orbit transfer, 128 3-1-1 Carbon nanotube structures, 47 3-2-1 Swarm of nanosatellites, 97 4-1 Communities needed for the production, maintenance, and use of military hardware, 144 4-2 Lithography examples, 146 4-3 The sequential steps in LIGA, 148 4-4 Schematic of the structures used in LISC, 149 4-5 Integrated circuit production, 151 4-6 Cross-sectional photograph of a silicon wafer processed by deep reactive ion etching, 152 4-7 Rotapod MEMS device, 160 4-8 Principle of DNA-assisted pick and place, 162 4-9 DNA-assisted microassembly, 163 4-10 Lenslet array fabricated using hydrophobic/hydrophilic selectivity, 164 4-11 Cumulative user accounts for the MEMS exchange, 171 4-12 Cut-away of the digital mirror device structural model, 174 4-13 Photomicrograph of the digital mirror device, 174 4-1-1 Two-dimensional active pixel sensor array, 170 5-1 Air Force nanotechnology research, 186 5-2 Trends in federal R&D funding, FY 1990–2003, 191 5-3 Funding of basic research by DoD, 191 5-4 Science and technology funding levels by Service, 192 5-5 Integrated circuit sales, 194 6-1-1 DARPA/Aerospace Corp. picosatellites, 208 6-2-1 The AeroVironment Black Widow micro air vehicle, 213 6-2-2 Subsystem layout, size, and mass of the Black Widow, 214 A-1 A computerized manufacturing procedure for nanoproducts, 231
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies TABLES ES-1 Recommended Air Force Roles in Micro- and Nanotechnology Research, 7 ES-2 Taxonomy of Micro- and Nanotechnology Research Areas and Their Relevance to the Air Force, 8 ES-3 Selected Mission and Platform Opportunity Areas, 14 2-1 Predictions of 2001 ITRS for Selected Parameters, 33 3-1 Approximate Radiation Hardness Levels for Semiconductor Devices, 53 4-1 Reliability Paradigm for Nanoproducts, 167 4-2 High Complexity of the Digital Mirror Device, 175 5-1 Challenges and Impact Areas, 185 5-2 Air Force Nanotechnology Research, 186 5-3 AFOSR-Managed DURINT Programs, 189 5-4 Nanotechnology MURIs in FY 2001, 189 5-5 AFOSR Technology Grants in FY 2001, 190 6-1 Selected Mission and Platform Opportunity Areas, 206 BOXES 1-1 A Matter of Scale, 25 1-2 Small Satellites: How Small Can We Go?, 28 3-1 The Ubiquitous Carbon Nanotube, 47 3-2 Emergent Behavior of Swarms of Microplatforms, 97 4-1 MOSIS, 170 5-1 Expected Impacts of Research Supported by the Air Force Nanotechnology Program, 184 5-2 Initial DoD Focus in Nanotechnology, 188 5-3 Air Force Nanotechnology Program, 188 6-1 Nano- and Picosatellites, 208 6-2 The Black Widow Micro Air Vehicle, 213
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies Acronyms AFM atomic force microscope AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AFSTB Air Force Science and Technology Board APD avalanche photo diode ASIC application-specific integrated circuit ASIM application-specific integrated microinstrument BARC Bead Array Counter CA cellular automata CAD computer-aided design CAM computer-aided manufacturing CAPP computer-aided process planning CBM condition-based maintenance CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor CNT carbon nanotube CONOPS concept of operations CPU central processing unit DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DDR&E Director of Defense Research and Engineering DMD digital mirror device DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies DoD Department of Defense DRAM dynamic random-access memory DSP digital signal processor DURINT Defense University research in nanotechnology DURIP Defense University Research Instrumentation Program ECL emitter-coupled logic EDAC error detection and control ELINT electronic intelligence ELO epitaxial lateral overgrowth EPROM erasable programmable read-only memory EUV extreme ultraviolet FEL free-electron laser FY fiscal year GEO geosynchronous orbit GLOW gross liftoff weight GMR giant magnetoresistive GPS Global Positioning System GTO geosynchronous transfer orbit HEMT high-electron-mobility transistor IC integrated circuit IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IMU inertial measurement unit IR infrared IT information technology ITRS International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors JSEP Joint Service Electronics Program JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System LANL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LCE life-cycle engineering LEO low Earth orbit LIGA Lithographie, Galvanoformung, und Abformung LISA lithographically induced self-assembly LISC lithographically induced self-construction MAC MEMS-based active aerodynamic flight control vehicle MACSAT multiple access communications satellite
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies MAV micro air vehicle MBE molecular beam epitaxy MCM multichip modules MEMS microelectromechanical systems MEU multiple-event upset MOEMS microoptoelectromechanical system MOSFET metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MPG micropower generator MRAM magnetic random-access memory MURI Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative NDR negative differential resistance NEMS nanoelectromechanical system NIL nanoimprint lithography nm nanometer NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NRC National Research Council PHM condition-based and prognostics health monitoring pico prefix for 10−12 PMMA polymethylmethacrylate QDCA quantum-dot cellular automata R&D research and development RDT&E research, development, testing, and evaluation RF radio frequency RTD resonant tunneling diode S&T science and technology SEM scanning electron microscope SEU single-event upset Si silicon SIA Semiconductor Industry Association SOC system-on-a-chip SPENVIS Space Environment Information System SRAM static random-access memory SRMU solid rocket motor unit STTL Shottky transistor-transistor logic SWNT single-wall carbon nanotube TFSOI thin-film silicon-on-insulator TTL transistor-transistor logic
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Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies UAV unmanned air vehicle UCAV unmanned combat air vehicle URI University Research Initiative VCSEL vertical cavity surface-emitting laser VLA Very Large Array WDM wavelength division multiplexing WLR wafer-level reliability
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