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MATERIALS RESEARCH TO MEET 21ST-CENTURY DEFENSE NEEDS Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was conducted under Contract No. MDA972-01-D-001 from the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08700-7 Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS RESEARCH FOR DEFENSE AFTER NEXT HARVEY SCHADLER (Chair), General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (retired), Schenectady, New York ALAN LOVELACE (Vice Chair), General Dynamics Corporation (retired), La Jolla, California JAMES BASKERVILLE, Bath Iron Works (General Dynamics), Bath, Maine FEDERICO CAPASSO, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey (until June 2000) MILLARD FIREBAUGH, Electric Boat Corporation (General Dynamics), Groton, Connecticut JOHN GASSNER, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Newark FRANK KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio MEYYA MEYYAPPAN, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California GEORGE PETERSON, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico RICHARD TRESSLER, Pennsylvania State University (emeritus), University Park Panel on Structural and Multifunctional Materials HARRY A. LIPSITT (Chair), Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio MILLARD FIREBAUGH (Vice Chair), Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Connecticut MICHAEL I. BASKES, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois THOMAS W. EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RICHARD J. FARRIS, University of Massachusetts, Amherst D. DAVID NEWLIN, General Dynamics Land Systems, Sterling Heights, Michigan
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GEORGE PETERSON, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio RICHARD TRESSLER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Panel on Energy and Power Materials JOHN GASSNER (Co-chair), U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts JAMES BASKERVILLE (Co-chair), Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine DANIEL H. DOUGHTY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico SOSSINA M. HAILE, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena ROBERT N. KATZ, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts Panel on Electronic and Photonic Materials JULIA M. PHILLIPS (Co-chair), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico MEYYA MEYYAPPAN (Co-chair), NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California HAROLD G. CRAIGHEAD, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York NARSINGH B. SINGH, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Linthicum, Maryland MING C. WU, University of California, Los Angeles EDWARD ZELLERS, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Panel on Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials FRANK KARASZ (Chair), University of Massachusetts, Amherst LISA KLEIN, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey VINCENT D. McGINNISS, Optimer Photonics, Columbus, Ohio GARY E. WNEK, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond LUPING YU, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
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Panel on Bioderived and Bioinspired Materials MICHAEL JAFFE (Chair), New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Newark ILHAN AKSAY, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARK ALPER, University of California, Berkeley PAUL CALVERT, University of Arizona, Tucson MAURO FERRARI, Ohio State University, Columbus ERIK VIIRRE, University of California, San Diego National Materials Advisory Board Liaisons ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola (retired), Glen Ellyn, Illinois KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Government Liaisons ROBERT POHANKA, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT L. RAPSON, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio LEWIS SLOTER, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science and Technology), Washington, D.C. DENNIS J. VIECHNICKI, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland STEVEN WAX, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Study Director SHARON YEUNG DRESSEN, Program Officer (until July 2002) JULIUS CHANG, Program Officer (until April 2002) PAT WILLIAMS, Administrative Assistant
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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA M. PHILLIPS (Chair), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico JOHN ALLISON, Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan FIONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge GARY FISCHMAN, Consultant, Palatine, Illinois HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired), Snohomish, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors, Warren, Michigan ENRIQUE LAVERNIA, University of California, Davis HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio TERRY LOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois National Materials Advisory Board Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director
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Preface The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), conduct a study to identify and prioritize critical materials and processing research and development (R&D) that will be needed to meet 21st-century defense needs. The Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next was established to investigate investments in R&D required to meet long-term (~2020) DoD needs. Its purpose was to explore revolutionary materials concepts that would provide an advantage to U.S. forces in weapons, logistics, deployment, and cost. The committee was charged to address the following specific tasks: Review DoD planning documents and input from DoD systems development experts to identify long-term technical requirements for weapons system development and support. Develop materials needs and priorities based on DoD requirements. Establish and guide approximately five study panels to investigate identified priority areas and recommend specific research opportunities. Integrate and prioritize the research opportunities recommended by the study panels. Recommend ways to integrate materials and processes advances into new system designs.
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The results of the initial phase, begun in December 1999, were documented in the January 2001 interim report.1 In that initial phase the committee (13 scientists and engineers) met with technical representatives of the military services and DoD agencies, directors of service laboratories, and managers of DoD agencies (see Appendix A for a list of invited speakers). The objective of those meetings was to understand DoD’s vision of current and future weapons, systems, and logistics requirements and its long-term cost targets. Although this aspect of the committee’s study was not exhaustive, learning the status of current R&D supported by DoD, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation provided a context for organizing subsequent meetings. The committee then met with materials experts from industry, academia, and national laboratories to identify research that could be brought to fruition in the 20- to 30-year time frame specified for the study. At a later meeting, the committee analyzed the data gathered and drafted the interim report. In the next phase of the study, five technical panels were established (see Appendix B for the panel members’ biographies): Structural and Multifunctional Materials, Energy and Power Materials, Electronic and Photonic Materials, Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials, and Bioderived and Bioinspired Materials. These panels explored in depth the new opportunities in their areas of materials research and related them to DoD needs. Many of the concepts are still in their infancy. The questions the panels addressed were (1) What will be the impact of a successful materials R&D effort on future defense systems? and (2) How can the application of materials R&D be accelerated to meet DoD time constraints? The organization of the panels by function encouraged technical experts to participate. Each panel was responsible for quantifying the impact of new materials and processes and for identifying technical roadblocks to their development. The technical panels were led by members of the study committee. NMAB liaisons to the study committee also served as 1 National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Materials Research to Meet 21st-Century Defense Needs—Interim Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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liaisons to the technical panels. This structure helped to ensure coherence of purpose, continuity of effort, and the rapid exchange of information. We thank the committee and panel members for their participation in meetings and for their efforts and dedication in the preparation of this final report. We also thank the meeting speakers (listed in Appendix A) and participants and DoD study sponsors and liaisons, including Joseph Wells, Army Research Laboratory (retired), and Julie Christodoulou, Office of Naval Research. We thank the NMAB staff, especially Arul Mozhi, study director; Sharon Yeung Dressen, program officer; Julius Chang, program officer; Richard Chait, former staff director; Kevin Kyle, 2002 spring intern; Alan Lund, 2002 summer intern; Vikram Kaku, 2002 fall intern; and Pat Williams, administrative assistant. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Shaw Chen, University of Rochester; David Clarke, University of California-Santa Barbara; David Johnson, Jr., Agere Systems (retired); David Kaplan, Tufts University; James McBreen, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Mark Reed, Yale University; James Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies; David Srolovitz, Princeton University; Julia Weertman, Northwestern University; Albert Westwood, Sandia National Laboratories (retired); Mark Williams, National Energy Technology Laboratory; and Yang Yang, University of California-Los Angeles. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report
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before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Dieter, University of Maryland. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718. Harvey Schadler, Chair Alan Lovelace, Vice Chair Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next
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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MATERIALS NEEDS 9 Generic Defense Needs, 9 Examples of System Needs, 11 Translation to Materials and Process Needs, 13 Desired Materials Properties, 14 Materials Characteristics, 16 Engineering Issues, 17 2 USING NEW MATERIALS IN DEFENSE SYSTEMS 21 Introduction, 21 Expediting the Use of New Materials in Defense Systems, 22 Research-to-Development Transition Funding, 22 Communications, 23 Databases, 23 Conclusions, 24 References, 25 3 STRUCTURAL AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS 27 Chapter Summary, 27 Introduction, 28 DoD Needs for Multifunctional Structural Materials, 31 Specific Areas of Opportunity, 37 Materials Design Assisted by Computation, 37 Model-Based Life-Cycle Sensing and Prediction, 40 Multifunctional Materials, 42
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Smart Materials, 43 Composites, 46 Adhesives and Coatings, 49 Research and Development Priorities, 51 Materials Design Assisted by Computation, 51 Service-Induced Material Changes, 52 Multifunctional Composite Materials, 52 Integrating Nondestructive Inspection and Evaluation into Design, 53 References, 54 4 ENERGY AND POWER MATERIALS 55 Chapter Summary, 55 Introduction, 56 DoD Needs for Energy and Power Materials, 59 Specific Areas of Opportunity, 60 Energy Storage, 60 Energy Conversion, 74 Electrical Power Generation and Transmission for Propulsion and Related Systems, 83 Kinetic Energy Dissipation and Protection, 84 DoD Reliance on Energy Sources, 87 Research and Development Priorities, 87 Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, 87 Engineered Interfaces and Surfaces in Materials, 88 Advanced Energy Storage and Conversion Materials, 89 Tools for Accelerated, Systematic Materials Discovery, 89 Materials as the Foundation for Systems, 90 References, 91 5 ELECTRONIC AND PHOTONIC MATERIALS 95 Chapter Summary, 95 Introduction, 96 DoD Needs for Electronic and Photonic Materials, 96 Specific Areas of Opportunity, 98 Electronics, 98 Optoelectronics and Photonics, 106 Microsystems, 114 Research and Development Priorities, 128
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Fundamental Understanding of Existing Materials, 128 New Materials with Extreme Properties, 129 New Ways of Combining Materials, 129 Packaging and Thermal Management, 130 Materials Processing, 130 Theory and Modeling, 131 References, 131 6 FUNCTIONAL ORGANIC AND HYBRID MATERIALS 135 Chapter Summary, 135 Introduction, 136 DoD Needs for Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials, 137 Electronic Devices, 137 Photonics, 138 Optical Limiting Materials, 139 Organic Light-Emitting Materials, 139 Molecular Magnetic Materials, 140 Photorefractive Materials, 140 Photovoltaics, 140 Membranes, 141 Metal Organic Catalysts, 141 Specific Areas of Opportunity, 142 Electronic Devices, 142 Photonics, 148 Optical Limiting Materials, 156 Organic Light-Emitting Materials, 157 Molecular Magnetic Materials, 159 Photorefractive Materials, 162 Photovoltaics, 164 Membranes, 166 Metal Organic Catalysts, 168 Transparent Electrodes/Organic Interfaces, 170 Higher-Risk Developments, 171 Research and Development Priorities, 171 Convergence and Integration of Organic and Si (and Other Semiconductor) Electronics and Photonics in Hybrid Architectures, 172
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New Synthetic Strategies to Produce High Yields of Selected Polymers with Completely Defined Chemical Structures, Enhanced Homogeneity, and Purity, 172 Computer Modeling and Simulation, Accessible to Experimentalists, to Optimize Chemical and Structure Selection for Specific Functionalities, 173 Organic Materials to Provide Robust Defenses Against Laser Threats to Personnel and Equipment, 174 Catalyst Systems to Provide in Situ Defenses by Neutralizing Chemical and Biological Attack, 174 References, 174 7 BIOINSPIRED AND BIODERIVED MATERIALS 181 Chapter Summary, 181 Introduction, 183 DoD Needs for Bioinspired and Bioderived Materials, 184 Specific Areas of Opportunity, 187 Structural Materials, 187 Functional Materials, 191 Medical Applications, 200 Research and Development Priorities, 206 Improving Fundamental Understanding of the Relationships Between Biological Structure, Properties, and Evolution and Materials Design and Synthesis, 206 Increasing Communication of DoD Material Needs to Biological and Physical Scientists, 207 Basic Research into Biological Molecules, Structures, Systems, and Processes to Lay the Groundwork for Their Use, or Their Use as Models, in Serving the Materials Needs of DoD, 207 Identification and Development of Biocompatible Materials to Enable in Vivo Implantable Devices, 208 Development of Packaging Technologies to Preserve the Biological Function of Biologically Enabled Devices, 208 References, 208
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8 INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES 211 Introduction, 211 Design of Materials, Devices, and Systems Assisted by Computation and Phenomenological Models of Materials and Materials Behavior, 211 Convergence, Combination, and Integration of Biological, Organic, Semiconductor/Photonic, and Structural Materials, 214 Convergence, 214 Combination, 215 Integration, 216 Discovery and Characterization of New Materials with Unique or Substantially Improved Properties, 218 New Strategies for Processing, Manufacture, Inspection, and Maintenance of Materials and Systems, 220 Conclusions, 223 APPENDIXES A Meeting Speakers 227 B Biographical Sketches of Committee and Panel Members 237 C Integration of Materials Systems and Structures Development 247 D Energy and Power Materials 251 E Functional and Organic Hybrid Materials 285 F Bioinspired and Bioderived Materials 293
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Figures and Tables FIGURES 3-1 Schematic of materials and systems interactions through a series of models at various size scales, 39 4-1 Energy and power materials addressed by panels of the committee, 57 4-2 Ragone plot comparing nominal performance of batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and dielectric capacitors, 64 4-3 Schematic of a fuel cell, 76 4-4 Fossil-fuel-independent power generation in a fuel cell, 77 5-1 Relationships in the Future Combat System, 100 5-2 Generalized concept incorporating oscillators, filters, phase shifters, and circulators for a multilayer package with integrated circuits to improve quality and impedance matching, 105 5-3 Schematic of nanoscopic photonic integrated circuits made of photonic crystals, 113 6-1 Superconducting organic polymer, 142 6-2 Potential molecular wire material that takes advantage of σ bonds in polyorganosilane materials, 143 6-3 Molecular rectifier, 144 6-4 Representation of a polymer field-effect transistor, 146 6-5 Photonic devices in the telecommunications industry, 149
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6-6 Potential photonic components for incorporation into all- or hybrid-optical computers, 150 6-7 Basic structures of electro-optic chromophores, 151 6-8 EO polymer-chromophore waveguide electro-optical modulator or switch, 152 6-9 Potential military information gathering, analysis, and activation of another system, 155 6-10 Schematic representation of optical limiting and switching, 157 7-1 Schematic overview of subject matter and disciplines covered in this chapter, 184 7-2 Mechanical properties of natural and synthetic materials, 189 7-3 Calcite crystals grown on self-assembled monolayers on a patterned surface, 193 7-4 Tactile hairs on a spider leg, 197 C-1 Price-volume relationship for annual U.S. consumption of structural materials, 248 D-1 Military systems power requirements often follow a “step function,” so different power sources are needed for different applications, 252 D-2 Military versus commercial requirements for batteries, 253 D-3 Power versus energy density for selected mechanisms for electrical energy storage, 254 D-4 Is there room for improvement for energetic materials? Energy density per unit mass, 256 D-5 Schematic of a membrane reactor, using the water gas shift reaction as an example, 269 E-1 Electro-optic chromophore building blocks, 286 E-2 Typical electro-optic chromophore structures and their first molecular hyperpolarizability values, 286 E-3 Polymers and molecules used in preparing photorefractive composite films, 287 E-4 Functional photorefractive polymers, 287 E-5 Monolithic molecular photorefractive materials, 288 E-6 Photochromic switch, 288 E-7 Bead-on-a-thread molecular switch, 289
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E-8 The photo-induced electron transfer from a conjugated polymer (MEH-PPV) to C60, 290 TABLES 3-1 Potential for Achieving Property Improvements of 20 to 25 Percent over Current State of the Art for Various Classes of Materials by 2020, 30 3-2 Market for Structural Materials, 32 3-3 Examples of Multifunctional Capabilities of Targeted Structural Materials, 44 3-4 Examples of Military Applications Likely to Benefit from Revolutionary Advances in Multifunctional Structural Materials, 45 4-1 Fuel Cell Types and Selected Features, 78 4-2 Comparison of Initial Performance of Macro Gas Turbines and of a MEMS Microturbine, 81 4-3 Properties of Armor Ceramics, 86 5-1 Microsystems for (Bio)chemical Targets, 120 6-1 Summary of Where Research Is Needed to Develop Practical Molecular Electronics, 148 6-2 Summary of Where Organic and Polymeric Materials Might Be Used in Military Photonic Devices in 2020, 156 7-1 Energy Density and Other Properties of Glucose, Compared with Chemicals More Commonly Considered for Producing Power, 199 7-2 Current Human Enhancements and the Materials Enhancements They Depend On, 205 7-3 Human Body Functions That Could Potentially Be Enhanced and the Materials Advances Required, 205 C-1 Typical Costs of a Fabricated Structure Made from Monolithic (Noncomposite) Materials, 249 C-2 Structural Materials Selection Based on Value of Weight Savings over the Life of a Structure, 250
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D-1 First Synthesis of Chemical Explosives of Military Interest, 255 D-2 Fuel Cell Types and Selected Features, 262 D-3 Goals for Future Armor Areal Density, 278