REVIEW OF DOE’S VISION 21 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM—PHASE I

Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program—Phase I

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I REVIEW OF DOE’S VISION 21 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM—PHASE I Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program—Phase I Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Grant No. DE-AT01-02FE67269. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08717-1 Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 500 Fifth St. NA-W934 Washington, DC 20001 202-334-3344 Additional copies available for sale from: The National Academies Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I COMMITTEE TO REVIEW DOE’S VISION 21 R&D PROGRAM—PHASE I JAMES J. MARKOWSKY, NAE,1 Chair, American Electric Power (retired), North Falmouth, Massachusetts DAVID H. ARCHER, NAE,1 Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania RAMON L. ESPINO, University of Virginia, Charlottesville ENRIQUE IGLESIA, University of California, Berkeley EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBERT H. SOCOLOW, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey SAMUEL S. TAM, Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California STEPHEN WITTRIG, BP, Naperville, Illinois RONALD H. WOLK, Wolk Integrated Technical Services, San Jose, California JOHN M. WOOTEN, Peabody Energy, St. Louis, Missouri Liaison from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Chair, BEES, Consultant, Arlington, Virginia Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Study Director PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant, BEES 1   NAE = member, National Academy of Engineering.

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L. HIRSCH, Chair, RAND, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT W. FRI, Vice Chair, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DAVID L. BODDE, University of Missouri, Kansas City PHILIP R. CLARK, NAE,1 GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Boonton, New Jersey WILLIAM L. FISHER, NAE,1 University of Texas, Austin HAROLD FORSEN, NAE,1 National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM FULKERSON, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (term expired August 31, 2002) CHARLES GOODMAN, Southern Company Services, Birmingham, Alabama DAVID G. HAWKINS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. MARTHA A. KREBS, California Nanosystems Institute (retired), Los Angeles, California GERALD L. KULCINSKI, NAE,1 University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES J. MARKOWSKY, NAE,1 American Electric Power (retired), North Falmouth, Massachusetts DAVID K. OWENS, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C. EDWARD S. RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Honeywell Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, California PHILIP R. SHARP, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts ROBERT W. SHAW, JR., Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire JACK SIEGEL, Energy Resources International, Inc., Washington, D.C. (term expired August 31, 2002) ROBERT H. SOCOLOW, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey (term expired August 31, 2002) KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE,1 General Motors Corporation (retired), Falmouth, Massachusetts IRVIN L. (JACK) WHITE, Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (term expired August 31, 2002) JOHN J. WISE, NAE,1 Mobil Research and Development Company (retired), Princeton, New Jersey Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director ALAN CRANE, Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant 1   NAE = member, National Academy of Engineering.

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I Acknowledgments The Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program—Phase I wishes to acknowledge and thank the many individuals who contributed significantly of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study. The presentations at committee meetings provided valuable information and insight on advanced technologies and development initiatives that assisted the committee in formulating the recommendations included in this report. The committee expresses its thanks to the following individuals: Donald Bonk, NETL; Anthony V. Cugini, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Thomas J. Feeley, NETL; E.P. Ted Foster, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; Stephen Gehl, Electric Power Research Institute; Hossein Ghezel, FuelCell Energy; Larry Grimes, National Coal Council; Robert Horton, ChevronTexaco Worldwide Power & Gasification, Inc.; Abbie W. Layne, NETL; John L. Marion, Alstom Power, Inc.; John McDaniel, Tampa Electric Company; Robert R. Romanosky, NETL; John A. Ruether, NETL; Randall E. Rush, Southern Company Services, Inc.; Lawrence A. Ruth, NETL; Gary Stiegel, NETL; Mark C. Williams, NETL; and John C. Winslow, NETL. (See Appendix B for a list of their presentations.) The committee wishes to especially thank Larry Ruth and Carl Bauer, National Energy Technology Laboratory, for their presentations and discussions with the committee and their diligence in responding to the many requests for information by the committee. Finally, the chairman wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems of the NRC for their hard work in organizing and planning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report.

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Richard Balzhiser, NAE, Francis P. Burke, CONSOL, Inc., Neville Holt, Electric Power Research Institute, John B. O’Sullivan, consultant, Jack Siegel, Energy Resources International, Dale R. Simbeck, SFA Pacific, Inc., and Douglas Todd, Process Power Plants, LLC. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David Morrison, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making sure that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. James J. Markowsky, Chair Committee to Review DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program—Phase I

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   10     Goals and Targets,   12     Management Approach and Budget,   13     Statement of Task,   14     Organization of the Report,   14 2   STRATEGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE VISION 21 PROGRAM   16     Program Focus,   16     Linkages to DOE’s Fossil Energy R&D Outside Vision 21,   18     Program Management,   18     Budget,   19     Systems Integration and Analysis,   19     Linkages to Large-Scale Demonstrations,   20     Linkages to Basic Research and International Activities,   21     Evaluating Progress,   21 3   VISION 21 TECHNOLOGIES   24     Introduction,   24     Gasification,   24     Gas Purification,   31     Gas Separations,   36     Fuel Cells,   42     Turbines,   53

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Review of Doe’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program—Phase I     Environmental Control Technology,   59     Sensors and Controls,   63     Materials,   66     Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis,   73     Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals,   79     Advanced Coal Combustion,   83     REFERENCES   86     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   91     B Presentations and Committee Activities   95