NOVEL APPROACHES TO CARBON MANAGEMENT

Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products

WORKSHOP REPORT

Committee on Novel Approaches to the Management of Greenhouse Gases from Energy Systems

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report NOVEL APPROACHES TO CARBON MANAGEMENT Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products WORKSHOP REPORT Committee on Novel Approaches to the Management of Greenhouse Gases from Energy Systems Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the workshop on which it is based were supported by the Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-AT01–02FE67594. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from: Board on Energy and Environmental Systems National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Keck W934 Washington, DC 20001 202–334–3344 Additional copies available for sale from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 or 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm. A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report COMMITTEE ON NOVEL APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF GREENHOUSE GASES FROM ENERGY SYSTEMS DALE F.STEIN, NAE,1 Chair, Michigan Technological University at Houghton (retired), Tucson THOMAS ANTHONY, NAE, GE Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, New York CORALE BRIERLEY, NAE, Brierley Consultancy LLP, Highlands Ranch, Colorado JOHN B.CARBERRY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware ANANDA CHAKRABARTY, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, Chicago GARY COLEMAN, University of Maryland, College Park RAMON ESPINO, University of Virginia, Charlottesville GEORGE M.HIDY, Envair/Aerochem, Placitas, New Mexico JOHN L.HILL III, UTD Incorporated, Springfield, Virginia DAVID KEITH, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania FREDERICK KRAMBECK, NAE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland MARTHA A.KREBS, Science Strategies, Los Angeles, California HAROLD HING CHUEN KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois ALEXANDRA NAVROTSKY, NAS,2 University of California at Davis MICHAEL Q.PILSON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett JEFFREY SIIROLA, NAE, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, Tennessee ROBERT WILLIAMS, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey J.GREGORY ZEIKUS, Michigan State University, East Lansing Liaison from the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems WILLIAM (BILL) FISHER, University of Texas at Austin Project Staff ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) ANTHONY R.de SOUZA, Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources (BESR) TAMARA L.DICKINSON, Senior Program Officer, BESR PANOLA GOLSON, Senior Project Assistant, BEES MARTIN OFFUTT, Program Officer, BEES, and Study Director CHRISTOPHER YANG, Research Associate, BEES JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Board Director, BEES 1   NAE=Member, National Academy of Engineering 2   NAS=Member, National Academy of Sciences

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L.HIRSCH, Chair, Scientific Applications International Corporation, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT W.FRI, Vice Chair, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DAVID L.BODDE, University of Missouri, Kansas City PHILIP R.CLARK, NAE,2 GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Boonton, New Jersey WILLIAM L.FISHER, NAE, University of Texas, Austin HAROLD FORSEN, NAE, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. CHARLES GOODMAN, Southern Company Services, Birmingham, Alabama DAVID G.HAWKINS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. MARTHA A.KREBS, Science Strategies, Los Angeles, California GERALD L.KULCINSKI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES J.MARKOWSKY, NAE, American Electric Power (retired), North Falmouth, Massachusetts DAVID K.OWENS, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C. EDWARD S.RUBIN, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MAXINE L.SAVITZ, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, California PHILIP R.SHARP, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts ROBERT W.SHAW, JR., Aretê Corporation, Center Harbor, New Hampshire KATHLEEN C.TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation (retired), Falmouth, Massachusetts JOHN J.WISE, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Company (retired), Princeton, New Jersey National Research Council Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PANOLA GOLSON, Project Assistant 1   Douglas R.Chapin, NAE,2 takes over as Chair, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems effective April 17, 2003. 2   NAE=member, National Academy of Engineering

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES GEORGE M.HORNBERGER, NAE,1 Chair, University of Virginia, Charlottesville JILL F.BANFIELD, University of California, Berkeley STEVEN R.BOHLEN, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Washington, D.C. VICKI J.COWART, Colorado Geological Survey, Denver DAVID L.DILCHER, NAS,2 University of Florida, Gainesville ADAM M.DZIEWONSKI, NAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts WILLIAM L.GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia RHEA GRAHAM, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Albuquerque V.RAMA MURTHY, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis DIANNE R.NIELSON, Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City RAYMOND A.PRICE, NAS, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada MARK SCHAEFER, NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia BILLIE L.TURNER II, NAS, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts THOMAS J.WILBANKS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee National Research Council Staff ANTHONY R.de SOUZA, Director PAUL M.CUTLER, Senior Program Officer TAMARA L.DICKINSON, Senior Program Officer DAVID A.FEARY, Senior Program Officer ANNE M.LINN, Senior Program Officer RONALD F.ABLER, Senior Scientist KRISTEN L.KRAPF, Program Officer LISA M.VANDEMARK, Program Officer YVONNE P.FORSBERGH, Research Assistant MONICA R.LIPSCOMB, Research Assistant VERNA J.BOWEN, Administrative Associate JENNIFER T.ESTEP, Administrative Associate RADHIKA CHARI, Senior Project Assistant KAREN L.IMHOF, Senior Project Assistant TERESIA K.WILMORE, Project Assistant WINFIELD SWANSON, Technical Editor 1   NAE=member, National Academy of Engineering 2   NAS=member, National Academy of Sciences

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report Acknowledgments The Committee on Novel Approaches to the Management of Greenhouse Gases from Energy Systems wishes to acknowledge and thank the many individuals who participated in the National Research Council (NRC) Workshop on Novel Approaches to Carbon Mangement held in Irvine, California on February 12–14, 2003. These individuals, all of whom made valuable contributions in the form of discussions or presentations, are listed in Appendix A. Their input is the basis for the workshop report that the committee has prepared. The committee wishes to thank Scott Klara and Michael Knaggs, National Energy Technology Laboratory, for their presentations and discussions with the committee and workshop participants and for responding to requests for information by the committee. Finally, the chairman wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems and the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources of the NRC for their hard work organizing and planning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Jay Ague, Yale University; Ronald Cohen, University of California, Berkeley; L.S.Fan (NAE), Ohio State University; James G.Ferry, Pennsylvania State University; and John R.Wise (NAE), Mobil Research and Development Company, retired. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by H.M.Hubbard, retired president and CEO, Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making sure that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Dale F.Stein, Chair Committee on Novel Approaches to the Management of Greenhouse Gases from Energy Systems

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Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products - Workshop Report Contents 1   INTRODUCTION   1 2   ADVANCED SEPARATIONS TECHNIQUES   3 3   ADVANCED SUBSURFACE TECHNOLOGIES   9 4   ADVANCED GEOCHEMICAL METHODS FOR SEQUESTERING CARBON   14 5   NOVEL NICHES   20 6   CROSSCUTTING ISSUES   26     APPENDIXES     A   Workshop Participants   30 B   Workshop Agenda   33

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