ACHIEVING XXCELLENCE IN SCIENCE

Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science

Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002

Sally Shaywitz, M.D. and Jong-on Hahm, Ph.D., Editors

Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 ACHIEVING XXCELLENCE IN SCIENCE Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 Sally Shaywitz, M.D. and Jong-on Hahm, Ph.D., Editors Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by the Office of Research on Women’s Health, National Institutes of Health, Grant No. N01-OD-4-2139, Task Order #103, The Burroughs Wellcome Fund, and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09174-8 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53104-7 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 STEERING COMMITTEE FOR AXXS 2002 WORKSHOP Sally Shaywitz, M.D., Chair, Professor of Pediatrics, Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention and Yale University School of Medicine, Yale University Nancy Andrews, M.D., Ph.D., Leland Fikes Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Janet Bickel, M.A., Former Associate Vice President for Medical School Affairs, Association of American Medical Colleges Michael Lockshin, M.D., Professor of Medicine, Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University Herbert Pardes, M.D., President and CEO, New York-Presbyterian Hospital Deborah Powell, M.D., Dean and Assistant Vice President for Clinical Affairs, University of Minnesota Medical School W. Sue Shafer, Ph.D., Deputy Director, Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research Jeanne Sinkford, D.D.S., Ph.D., Associate Executive Director, American Dental Education Association Project Staff Jong-on Hahm, Ph.D., Director Amaliya Jurta, Senior Project Assistant (through July 2002) Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, Program Associate

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING POLICY AND GLOBAL AFFAIRS DIVISION NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Lilian Shiao-Yen Wu, Ph.D., Chair, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corporation Uma Chowdhry, Ph.D., Director of Engineering Technology, DuPont Engineering Ralph J. Cicerone, Ph.D., Chancellor, University of California, Irvine Alice S. Huang, Ph.D., Senior Councilor, External Relations and Biology Faculty Associate, California Institute of Technology Kathryn O. Johnson, Ph.D., Owner/Principal, Matrix Consulting Group William Phillips, Ph.D., Fellow, Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Darryll J. Pines, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland Sue V. Rosser, Ph.D., Dean, Ivan Allen College, Georgia Institute of Technology Sally Shaywitz, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics, Yale Center for the Study of Learning and Attention and Yale University School of Medicine, Yale University Julia Weertman, Ph.D., Walter P. Murphy Professor Emerita, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University CWSE Staff Jong-on Hahm, Ph.D., Director Amaliya Jurta, Senior Project Assistant (through July 2002) Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance, Program Associate

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 Preface If the world of biomedical research can be likened to a globe, perhaps clinical research can be envisioned as the side facing away from the sun. Although part of the whole, it is not the shining face of biomedical research. But basic and clinical research share equally the responsibility for achieving the goals of biomedical research—improved health and treatment of disease. This workshop, held July 8–9, 2002, in Washington, D.C., looked at ways to advance women scientists careers in clinical research. Interest in such careers is falling among medical degree recipients, and particularly among women. This situation is worrisome because, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges, women will soon make up the majority of recipients of medical degrees and life science doctorates (according to NSF data), and declining interest from the growing pool of future investigators may constrict our understanding of human disease. The Office of Research on Women’s Health (ORWH) at the National Institutes of Health asked the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering at the National Research Council (NRC) to hold a workshop to explore ways in which scientific societies could enhance the research careers of women scientists, in support of ORWH’s ongoing efforts to promote women’s advancement in biomedical careers. Scientific societies play a crucial role in career development, and identifying specific strategies that societies could deploy might be very helpful in encouraging women to enter and continue in clinical research careers. This volume consists of the presentations made at the workshop, including remarks by the leaders of the five breakout sessions. The statements made in the enclosed papers are those of the individual presenters and do not necessarily represent positions of the committee or the National Academies.

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 ORWH has consistently been a leader on this issue, and the committee would like to acknowledge Dr. Vivian Pinn, director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health, for her continued support of efforts to advance women in biomedical research careers, and Ms. Joyce Rudick in ORWH for translating the visions into reality. We also would like to acknowledge Dr. Jong-on Hahm, Amaliya Jurta, and Elizabeth Briggs Huthnance of the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering, for their energetic efforts and commitment in bringing this workshop and the resulting proceedings to fruition. This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this volume: Veronica Catanese, New York University Medical Center; Adrian Dobs, Johns Hopkins University; Elaine Gallin, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation; John Lumpkin, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Joan Lunney, United States Department of Agriculture; Christine Seidman, Harvard Medical School; and Harold Slavkin, University of Southern California. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors. Sally Shaywitz, Chair Steering Committee for AXXS 2002 Workshop

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002 Contents SESSION I:   WELCOMING REMARKS AND OPENING KEYNOTE ADDRESS         Welcoming Remarks Vivian Pinn, M.D., National Institutes of Health   3     Opening Keynote Address: How Far We Have Come, How Far We Still Have to Go: How Women Saved American Medicine Carola Eisenberg, M.D., Harvard Medical School   5 SESSION II:   PRESENTATIONS AND PANEL DISCUSSION         Opening Remarks   13      Vivian Pinn, M.D., National Institutes of Health,   13      Sally Shaywitz, M.D., Yale University School of Medicine,   15      Harvey Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., Institute of Medicine,   19     Keynote Address: Women in Science and Medicine Karen Antman, M.D., Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center   21     From AXXS ’99 to AXXS 2002 Page S. Morahan, Ph.D., National Center of Leadership in Academic Medicine   28

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Achieving XXCellence in Science: Role of Professional Societies in Advancing Women in Science - Proceedings of a Workshop AXXS 2002     A Pathways Model for Career Progression in Science Pam Marino, Ph.D., National Institutes of Health   33     Advancing Women in Academic Medicine Janet Bickel, M.A., Association of American Medical Colleges   38     Panel: Differences Between Basic and Clinical Disciplines W. Sue Shafer, Ph.D., Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research Herbert Pardes, M.D., New York Presbyterian Hospital Jeanne Sinkford, D.D.S., Ph.D., American Dental Education Association   43     Women in Leadership Ruth Kirschstein, M.D., National Institutes of Health   55 SESSION III:   REPORTS OF BREAKOUT SESSIONS         Reports of Breakout Sessions   61      Nancy Andrews, M.D., Ph.D., Harvard Medical School,   62      W. Sue Shafer, Ph.D., Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research,   63      Michael Lockshin, M.D., Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University,   63      Herbert Pardes, M.D., New York-Presbyterian Hospital,   64      Jeanne Sinkford, D.D.S., Ph.D., American Dental Education Association,   65 SESSION IV:   CLOSING PLENARY         Closing Remarks: Achieving XXcellence          Diane Wara, M.D., University of California–San Francisco,   69      Vivian Pinn, M.D., National Institutes of Health,   80 APPENDIXES     A   Workshop Agenda   85 B   Workshop Participants and Speakers   88