SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Grand Challenges and Research Needs

Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Grand Challenges and Research Needs Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the American Chemical Society, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (X3-83159901), Los Alamos National Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy; 98627-01-04AX), and the National Science Foundation (CTS-051698Q), with additional sponsorship from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (SB1344105W0298), and the American Institute of Chemical Engineering. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09571-9 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-54817-9 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs COMMITTEE ON GRAND CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Chairperson JAMES A. TRAINHAM, III, PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA Members VICTOR ATIEMO-OBENG, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI MICHAEL D. BERTOLUCCI, Interface Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA JOAN F. BRENNECKE, University Of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN BERKELEY W. CUE, Private Consultant, Ledyard, CT JEAN DE GRAEVE, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium JAMES E. HUTCHISON, University Of Oregon, Eugene, OR ANDREA LARSON, University Of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA PAMELA G. MARRONE, Agraquest, Inc., Davis, CA FRANKIE WOOD-BLACK, ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX National Research Council Staff KAREN LAI, Research Associate TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ERICKA MCGOWAN, Research Associate SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Co-chairs A. WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR. (NAS), Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA ELSA REICHMANIS (NAE), Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ Members PAUL T. ANASTAS, Green Chemistry Institute, Washington, DC DENISE M. BARNES, Independent Consultant, Snellville, GA MARK E. DAVIS (NAE), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA JEAN DE GRAEVE, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium MILES P. DRAKE, Air Products & Chemical Company, Allentown, PA CATHERINE C. FENSELAU, University of Maryland, College Park, MD GEORGE W. FLYNN (NAS), Columbia University, New York, NY MAURICIO FUTRAN (NAE), Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ LOU ANN HEIMBROOK, Merck & Company, Inc., Rahway, NJ ROBERT HWANG, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY JAY V. IHLENFELD, 3M Research & Development, St. Paul, MN JAMES L. KINSEY (NAS), Rice University, Houston, TX MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Los Angeles, CA WILLIAM A. LESTER, JR., University of California, Berkeley, CA GREGORY O. NELSON, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, TN GERALD V. POJE, Independent Consultant, Vienna, VA DONALD PROSNITZ, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA MATTHEW V. TIRRELL (NAE), University of California, Santa Barbara, CA National Research Council Staff KAREN LAI, Research Associate TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Research Associate SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Project Assistant DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs Preface Key players in chemistry and chemical engineering sectors believe that generating economically viable alternatives to current reliance on fossil fuels and business practices that degrade the regenerative capabilities of natural systems—sustainability—are critical to global leadership by the U.S. chemical industry. Government interest in sustainability revolves around assuring the future environmental and economic integrity of the nation, while industrial interest usually arises from a concern for the long-term viability of a company or an entire industry. An interagency group has been meeting informally on the topic of science for sustainability for several years. Membership in this group includes officials from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Members of this group have been meeting with representatives from organizations such as the American Chemical Society (ACS), the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), the American Chemistry Council, and the Council for Chemical Research to focus on the goal of achieving a “sustainable chemical enterprise”. This subgroup wants to increase the application of the principles of sustainability to decision-making in the chemical industry by improving the science and technology base that can inform such decisions. The Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry, established by the National Academies, through its Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST), was asked to assist this group

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs of government and non-governmental representatives in defining a path forward for the chemical industry in this area. The committee was composed of 10 experts in the areas of: chemistry, chemical synthesis and process engineering, green chemistry and engineering approaches and education, biotechnology, agricultural chemicals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, industrial research management, business strategy and innovation, toxicology, and environmental health and safety. The group met nine times via teleconference to plan the workshop held February 7-8, 2005 in Washington, DC. The full committee met for the first time in a face-to-face meeting held in conjunction with the workshop. The fundamental premise of the committee’s efforts throughout this study was to focus attention on those areas posing the greatest science and technical challenges for addressing sustainability in the chemical industry. The committee would like to thank all the organizations funding the study for recognizing the need to provide leadership and help stimulate work to address sustainability in the chemical industry. Major sponsors include the American Chemical Society, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Los Alamos National Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), and the National Science Foundation, with additional sponsorship from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the American Institute of Chemical Engineering. Jim Trainham, Chair

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form bypersons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dr. R. Stephen Berry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Dr. William L. Chameides, Environmental Defense, New York, NY Dr. Robert R. Dorsch, DuPont Bio-Based Materials, Wilmington, DE Dr. Miles P. Drake, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA Dr. Thomas E. Graedel, Yale University, New Haven, CT Dr. Royce W. Murray, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Mr. Sam Smolik, Shell Chemical, Houston, TX Dr. Jack Solomon, Praxair, Inc., Danbury, CT Dr. John C. Warner, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop report before its release. The review was overseen by Dr. W.

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, appointed by the National Research Council and Dr. David C. Bonner, Intellectual Property Business International, LLC, Houston, TX, appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   10 2   Enabling Science and Technology That Drives the Application of Sustainable Chemistry   19 3   New Chemistries and Processes That Lead to Commercially Viable Alternative Feedstocks to Fossil Fuels   41 4   Addressing the Energy Intensity of the Chemical and Allied Process Industry   54 5   Sustainability Science Literacy and Education That Enables the Adoption of More Sustainable Practices in the Chemical Industry   67 6   Conclusions and Recommendations   80     Appendixes         A  Statement of Task   93     B  Committee Biosketches   94     C  Workshop Agenda   99     D  Workshop Summary   103     E  Summary of Workshop Breakout Sessions   156     F  Workshop Speaker Biographies   185     G  List of Workshop Participants   191

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