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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. EP-C-04-024 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10151-4 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-65868-3 (PDF) Library of Congress 2006926248 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions COMMITTEE ON STATE PRACTICES IN SETTING MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS STANDARDS Members DAVID ALLEN (Chair), University of Texas, Austin JOHN BAILAR III, University of Chicago (Retired), Washington, DC HUGH ELLIS, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD ALISON GEYH, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD DAVID GREENE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN JAMES LENTS, University of California, Riverside, Riverside GARY MARCHANT, Arizona State University, Tempe VIRGINIA MCCONNELL, Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC ALISON POLLACK, ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA HAROLD SCHOCK, Michigan State University, East Lansing KARL SPRINGER, Southwest Research Institute (retired), San Antonio, TX Project Staff K. JOHN HOLMES, Project Director RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer MATTHEW RUSSELL, Associate Staff Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate BRYAN SHIPLEY, Research Associate RADIAH A. ROSE, Senior Program Assistant ALEXANDRA STUPPLE, Senior Editorial Assistant RAHEL MENGHESTAB, Anderson Intern SAMMY BARDLEY, Librarian Sponsor U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMÓN ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense, Washington, DC THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC J. PAUL GILMAN, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA DANIEL S. GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, MA WILLIAM P. HORN, Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University (emeritus), East Lansing JAMES H. JOHNSON JR., Howard University, Washington, DC JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington, DC STEWARD T.A. PICKETT, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MONICA G. TURNER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer KARL E. GUSTAVSON, Senior Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor 1 This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (4 volumes, 2000-2004) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (4 volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995) Biologic Markers (5 volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (3 volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Preface The task undertaken by this committee for the National Academies was to review and evaluate the scientific and technical practices used by states in setting emission standards for mobile sources, including those for non-road engines and vehicles. The study assessed the scientific and technical procedures used by states to develop or adopt emissions standards separate from those set by the Environmental Protection Agency under the Clean Air Act as well as the factors that cause states to move to more stringent emissions standards. The committee considered the scientific, technical, and economic rationale and methodologies used by the states in setting standards and how they compare to those used by the EPA. In addition, the committee assessed the direct and indirect impacts that state emissions standards have had on various factors, including compliance costs, energy consumption, air quality, and human health. The committee received oral and written presentations from the following individuals: Steve Albu, California Air Resources Board; Thomas Austin, Sierra Research, Inc.; Robert Babik, General Motors Company; William Becker, State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials; Thomas Cackette, Air Resources Board; Coralie Cooper, Northeast States Coordinated Air Use Management; Greg Dana, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers; David Dickinson, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Karl Simon, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Chet France, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Timothy French, Engine Manufacturers Association; Dawn Gallagher, Maine Department of Environmental Protection; John German, Honda Motor Company; Robert Golledge, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection;
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions William Guerry, Outdoor Power Equipment Institute; Patricia Hanz, Briggs & Stratton Corporation; Peter Hotz, Briggs & Stratton Corporation; Roland Hwang, Natural Resources Defense Council; Peter Iwanowicz, American Lung Association of New York State, Inc.; Carl Johnson, New York Department of Environmental Conservation; Robert Jorgensen, Cummins Engine Company; Therese Langer, American Council for an Energy-Efficiency Economy; Peter Lidiak, American Petroleum Institute; Arthur Marin, Northeast States Coordinated Air Use Management; Gina McCarthy, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection; George Miller, International Consortium for Fire Safety, Health and the Environment; Frederick Postel, International Consortium of Fire Safety, Health and the Environment; Thomas Snyder, Maryland Department of Environmental Protection; Richard Valentinetti, Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation; Barry Wallerstein, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Michael Walsh, Independent Consultant; Catherine Witherspoon, California Air Resources Board; Merrylin Zaw-Mon, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The committee thanks all of these individuals for their contributions. A complete list of dates, titles and presenter names can be found in Appendix E. The committee is also grateful for the assistance of the National Research Council (NRC) staff in the preparation of this report. K. John Holmes played a key role in preparing this report in his role as project director. The committee also thanks Raymond Wassel, senior program director of environmental sciences and engineering in the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST), and the other staff members contributing to this report: James Reisa, director of BEST; Ruth Crossgrove, senior editor; Matthew Russell, associate staff officer; Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic and Bryan Shipley, research associates; Radiah Rose, senior program assistant; Alexandra Stupple, senior editorial assistant; and Rahel Menghasteb, Anderson intern. As chair, I thank all the members of the committee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the study. Finally, given the topic of this report, it is appropriate to acknowledge a major supporter of the NRC, Arnold Beckman. Few know of the involvement of Arnold Beckman in the early efforts to reduce air pollution in California. In 1953, Arnold Beckman chaired a five-member committee formed by then Governor Knight to address a comprehensive program needed to eliminate smog. One of the several short- and long-term recommendations was to control automobile exhaust. Perhaps the following best sums up the Beckman Committee’s concerns.
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions The fact must be faced that cleaning the air in this area is a tremendous task, one that many will find appallingly expensive. This committee would be gravely remiss if it failed to point out that the community must either assume the real hardships imposed by abatement or accept those imposed by the continuing smog nuisance.1 NRC committees regularly use the Beckman Center, located on the campus of the University of California, Irvine. This acknowledgment is included in the Preface to our report to express the appreciation on behalf of those who have made use of the Beckman Center and to recognize Arnold Beckman’s pioneering leadership to reduce air pollution. David Allen, Ph.D. Chair, Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards 1 Aplet, J.H., Meade, G. Mobile Source Emissions Regulations in California: 1960 to 1995, from Advances in Economics of Environmental Resources Vol. 2, 1997, Edited by Hall, J.V.
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William Agnew, General Motors Corporation (Retired) and Thomas Graedel, Yale University. Appointed by the NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 17 Origin of Study and Committee Charge, 18 The Committee’s Approach to the Charge and the Report Organization, 19 2 AIR QUALITY, EMISSIONS, AND HEALTH IMPACTS OVERVIEW 21 Overview of Pollutants and Standards, 21 Ground-Level Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter, 29 Mobile-Source Emissions Characterization, 35 On-Road Mobile-Source Emissions, 39 Nonroad Mobile Sources and Emissions, 50 Link Between Emissions and Air Quality, 55 Hazardous Air Pollutants, 58 Air Quality Health Effects from Exposure to Mobile Sources, 58 Conclusions, 63 3 REGULATION OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW MOBILE SOURCES 65 The Evolution of the Existing Statutory Framework, 66 Administrative and Judicial Interpretations, 75 Federal (EPA) Process for Developing Mobile-Source Emissions Standards, 87
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions California’s History and Process for Developing Mobile-Source Emissions Standards, 89 Mobile-Source Regulation in the State Implementation Plan, 102 Conclusions, 113 4 CO-EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY AND EMISSIONS STANDARDS 114 Technology-Forcing Standards, 115 Technologies to Control Light-Duty-Vehicle Emissions, 117 Technologies to Control Heavy-Duty-Vehicle Emissions, 129 Technologies to Control Nonroad Sources from Lawnmowers to Locomotives, 130 Conclusions, 134 5 ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO SETTING MOBILE-SOURCE STANDARDS 136 Rationales for Different Approaches to Setting Mobile-Source Standards, 136 Harmonization of Standards and Procedures, 146 Potential Impacts of Emissions-Control Technology Costs, 148 An Overview of the Possible Standard-Setting Outcomes, 151 Issues in Analysis of Benefits and Costs of Standards, 157 Conclusions, 163 6 LIGHT-DUTY-VEHICLE EMISSIONS STANDARDS 165 The Low-Emission-Vehicle Program, 165 Current California and Federal Emissions Standards, 177 Process of Setting Standards: LEV II vs. Tier 2, 183 Adoption of LEV by Authority of Section 177 of the Clean Air Act, 205 California Motor Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Standards, 219 Conclusions, 223 7 OTHER CASE STUDIES 225 Spark-Ignition Marine Outboard and Personal Watercraft Engines, 226 Heavy-Duty-Vehicle Engine Standards, 233 Off-Road Equipment with Small Spark-Ignition Engines, 245 Voluntary Programs, 255 Conclusions, 260 8 RECOMMENDATIONS 264 California’s Role in Mobile-Source Emissions Regulation, 264
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions EPA and CARB Technical and Scientific Practices in Setting Standards, 265 The Waiver Process, 266 Adoption of California Emission Standards by Other States, 267 Small-Engine Emissions Standards, 269 Cost Analyses, 269 Harmonization of Standards and Procedures, 270 REFERENCES 271 GLOSSARY 301 ABBREVIATIONS 317 APPENDIXES A: Biographical Information on the Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards, 320 B: Acronyms and Names Used for Classifying Organic Compounds, 325 C: Summary of Milestones in CARB Mobile-Source Emissions Regulations and Comparison with EPA, 326 D: Statutory Sections Relevant to the Regulation of New Mobile-Source Emissions, 331 E: Public Workshop Presentations, 335 BOXES 3-1 New Vehicle Emissions Standards and Controls on In-Use High-Emitting Vehicles, 110 4-1 Certification of Light-Duty Vehicles to Emissions Standards, 118 FIGURES 2-1 Counties designated “nonattainment” for NAAQS as of September 2005, 26 2-2 Counties designated nonattainment for PM2.5 and/or ozone with concentrations averaged over 8 hrs, 27 2-3 Frequency with which the NAAQS for ozone (with concentrations averaged over 8 hr) was exceeded 2001-2003, 28
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions 2-4 Trends in maximum ozone concentrations averaged over 1 hr for New York and Los Angeles airsheds from 1978 to 2004, 28 2-5 Trends in maximum ozone concentrations averaged over 8 hr for New York and Los Angeles airsheds from 1994 to 2004, 29 2-6 Schematic of the atmospheric processes involved in the formation of O3 and secondary PM, 30 2-7 Ozone isopleths (lines of constant ozone concentrations), 32 2-8 Typical particle volume (n°V), surface area (n°S), and number (n°N) concentrations of urban aerosol as a function of particle diameter, 34 2-9 Mean PM2.5 compositions in the United States, 35 2-10 Trends in CO, NOx, and VOC emissions in the United States by major sector, 1970-2002, 37 2-11 Number of registered vehicles in various on-road vehicle classes in 2003, 40 2-12 New light-duty vehicle market share by vehicle class from 1976 to 2002, 41 2-13 Historical trends in mobile-source CO, VOC, and NOx emissions in the United States by vehicle class, 1970-2002, 48 2-14 Historical trends in mobile-source CO, NOx, and ROG emissions in California by vehicle class, 1975-2003 (2004 for ROG), 49 2-15 National 2002 estimates for nonroad equipment population by source category (in millions), 51 2-16 Historical trends in nonroad sources of (a) CO, (b) NOx, and (c) VOC emissions in the United States by equipment class, 1970-2002, 53 2-17 Historical trends in nonroad sources of (a) CO, (b) NOx, and (c) ROG emissions in California by equipment class, 1975-2004, 54 2-18 Representative emissions inventories (tons/day) from areas that are in nonattainment of the ozone NAAQS, based on 1-hr averaged concentrations, 56 2-19 Total particle number, black carbon (similar to elemental carbon), and CO concentrations versus downwind distance from a freeway, 57 3-1 Los Angeles Times sponsored a study by Raymond R. Tucker in 1946, 90
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions 3-2 Decreasing CO emissions from new vehicles, 112 4-1 Exhaust gas recirculation, 122 4-2 Schematic of a three-way catalyst, 122 4-3 Schematic of closed-loop controls, 123 4-4 Catalyst conversion efficiency as a function of air-to-fuel (A/F) mixture ratio, 124 4-5 Average CO emissions for a 111-vehicle test sample taken in Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, under temperatures ranging from 34° F to 14° F, 126 4-6 Average HC emissions for a 111-vehicle test sample taken in Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, under temperatures ranging from 34° F to 14° F, 126 4-7 Cross-section of a carbon canister, 128 4-8 Schematic of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOx reduction, 131 5-1 Costs and benefits of NOx reduction and HC reduction in Regions 1 and 2, 145 5-2 Impacts of safety and emissions equipment and other quality improvements on average vehicle price from 1967 to 2001, 149 6-1 Comparison of California and federal emissions standards (NOx + NMOG) estimated by CARB, 182 6-2 Forty-seven-state (excluding California) NOx emissions with the Tier 2/sulfur rule, 191 7-1 EPA model-year 1998-2006 exhaust (HC + NOx) emissions standards curves for recreational marine outboard and personal watercraft engines, 227 7-2 HC and NOx Tier 1 will begin in 2001 (EPA’s 2006 model year standard); Tier 2, which is 80% of Tier 1, will begin in 2004; and Tier 3, which is 35% of Tier 1, will begin in 2008, 230 7-3 Projected nationwide NOx emissions with and without the 2007 HDV engines and fuel sulfur standards, 238 7-4 Flow chart of small SI engine distribution process, 250 7-5 Results of research at Southwest Research Institute under contract to CARB to test surface-temperature effects of adding catalysts to small SI engines, 254 7-6 TERP NOx emission reductions to date versus the 2007 SIP TERP goal in the HGB area, 263
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions TABLES 2-1 Federal and California Ambient Air Quality Standards, 24 2-2 Air Pollutant Emissions Sources, 36 2-3 Companion of 2003 Activity and Fuel Consumption by Vehicle Type, 42 2-4 Percent Change in Annual Emissions from 1980 to 2000 for NOx, VOC, and CO, and Percent Change in Annual Vehicle Miles Traveled from 1980 to 2000, 50 2-5 Nonroad Mobile-Sources Categories, 51 3-1 Federal Legislation Controlling Regulation Development, 88 3-2 Executive Orders Controlling Regulation Development, 88 3-3 California and Federal Exhaust Emissions Standards for Passenger Vehicles (grams/mile), 92 3-4 Comparison of California with Federal Regulatory Initiatives for Light- and Medium-Duty On-Road Vehicles, 94 3-5 Important Features of the California CAA of 1988, 98 3-6 Comparison of 11-Member CARB Governing Board, 99 3-7 Estimates of Emissions-Carrying Capacity Needed for Attainment of Ozone Standards, 100 3-8 Steps in CARB Standards Development, 104 3-9 Elements of State Implementation Plans, 105 3-10 Attainment Years Set in Various CAA Amendments for the 1-hr Ozone Standard, 106 3-11 SIP Control Strategies for NOx for the Dallas-Fort Worth Area, 108 4-1 Major Control Technologies of New Light-Duty Vehicles Sold in the United States, 116 4-2 Summary of Emissions Controls Used to Meet Federal Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles, 120 4-3 Possible Emissions-Control Technologies for Nonroad Mobile Sources, 132 5-1 Costs and Benefits of Possible Outcomes of Allowing Separate State Standards, 152 6-1 LEV Fleet Average NMOG Standards in Grams per Mile, 167 6-2 Comparison of the Features of the LEV II and Tier 2 Programs, 180 6-3 LEV II Full Useful Life (120,000 mi) Exhaust Mass Emissions Standards in grams/mile, 182
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions 6-4 Tier 2 and Interim Non-tier 2 Full Useful Life (120,000 mi) Exhaust Mass Emission Standards in grams/mile, 183 6-5 Ex Ante Estimates of Most Likely Technologies to Meet the CARB LEV II and EPA Tier 2 Standards, Respectively, 187 6-6 Estimated Average Cost per Vehicle of California LEV Compared with Tier 1 and Averaged Over the Fleet, 194 6-7 Estimated Average Cost per Vehicle to Meet California LEV Standard Compared with the Tier 1 Standard (Cost per Vehicle), 194 6-8 Passenger Car and LDT 1: Incremental Component Costs of a ULEV II Compared with a ULEV I, 195 6-9 Ex Ante Estimates of the Costs per Vehicle for Meeting the LEV II and Tier 2 Standards (dollars per vehicle), 197 6-10 Incremental Manufacturer Cost Estimates of PZEVs, AT-PZEVs, and ZEVs (dollars per vehicle), 199 6-11 Estimates of Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Technology Vehicles (dollars per ton pollutant reduced over the lifetime of the vehicle), 201 6-12 Annual Health Benefits (Avoided Cases of Mortality and Morbidity and Monetized Value) for Tier 2 Regulation in 2030, 203 6-13 Manufacturers’ Objections to Northeast States’ Adoption of the California Emissions Standards, 209 6-14 Summary of Various Estimates of Emission Reductions Analyses of Adopting California Mobile-Source Emissions Standards in the Northeast, 216 6-15 CO2 Equivalent Emissions Standards for Model-Years 2009 through 2016, 220 6-16 Average Cost of Control, 221 7-1 NOx After-Treatment Devices for HDV Diesel Engines, 240 7-2 Per-Vehicle Incremental Cost Estimates of 2007 Heavy (33,001+ lb gross vehicle weight) HDV Diesel-Engine Standards Compliance, 242 7-3 Existing EPA Phase II Exhaust Emissions Standards for Small SI Engines in Handheld and Nonhandheld Equipment, 248 7-4 Existing CARB Small-Engine Exhaust Emissions Standards, Adopted in 2004 (also referred to as Tier 3), 249 7-5 Program Summary by Fiscal Year of the Carl Moyer Program (through mid-2003), 258
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions 7-6 Project Summary for the First Three Fiscal Years of the Carl Moyer Program (through mid-2003), 258 7-7 Summary of TERP-Funded and -Recommended Projects to Date in the HGB and DFW Areas (as of November 2, 2004), 261 7-8 Summary of TERP-Funded and -Recommended Projects to Date in the HGB and DFW Areas by Emission Sources (as of November 2, 2004), 262
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State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions
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