Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

Committee on Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Committee on Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-06-C-0041 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: Shown clockwise from upper center are representative types of equipment used in disassembly of chemical munitions and containers: (1) a munitions demilitarization machine, (2) a bulk drain station, (3) a transfer conveyor and mine machine, and (4) a fuzewell assembly removal station on the mine machine. Photographs taken at the Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility in Edgewood, Maryland, and provided courtesy of Colin Drury. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-10351-0 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-10351-7 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940 Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: National Academy Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment CCOMMITTEE ON CONTINUING OPERABILITY OF CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Chair, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired), Cambridge, Massachusetts OTIS A. SHELTON, Vice Chair, Praxair Inc., Danbury, Connecticut JAMES L. BACON, Development Alliance of Jefferson County, Arkansas ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International Corporation (retired), Dallas, Texas COLIN G. DRURY, University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York J. ROBERT GIBSON, Gibson Consulting LLC, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems Inc., Elyria, Ohio PETER B. LEDERMAN, Hazardous Substance Management Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), New Providence, New Jersey CHARLES I. McGINNIS, MG U.S. Army (retired), Charlottesville, Virginia A. CHARLES ROWNEY, ACR LLC, Longwood, Florida Staff HARRISON T. PANNELLA, Study Director (September 2006 to February 2007) ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director (January 2006 to August 2006) NIA D. JOHNSON, Research Associate ALEXANDER R. REPACE, Senior Program Assistant

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MALCOLM R. O’NEILL, Chair, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vienna, Virginia HENRY J. HATCH, Vice Chair, Army Chief of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia RAJ AGGARWAL, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa SETH BONDER, The Bonder Group, Ann Arbor, Michigan NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia JAMES CARAFANO, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International Corporation (retired), Dallas, Texas DARRELL W. COLLIER, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (retired), Leander, Texas ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts WILLIAM R. GRAHAM, National Security Research Inc. (retired), San Marino, California PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CARL GUERRERI, Electronic Warfare Associates Inc., Herndon, Virginia M. FREDERICK HAWTHORNE, University of California, Los Angeles CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, Science Applications International Corporation, Vienna, Virginia LARRY LEHOWICZ, Quantum Research International, Arlington, Virginia JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland EDWARD K. REEDY, Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta DENNIS J. REIMER, DFI International, Washington, D.C. WALTER D. SINCOSKIE, Telcordia Technologies Inc., Morristown, New Jersey JUDITH L. SWAIN, University of California, San Diego WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT, Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California EDWIN L. THOMAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University, Stanford, California Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director DETRA BODRICK-SHORTER, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Preface As the timeline for destruction of chemical weapons lengthens, there is concern that destruction facilities may face growing operational problems from processing a deteriorating stockpile with aging equipment. The challenges of continuing operability and the threat of obsolescence cannot be ignored. We would like to thank the committee for its hard work in visiting, interviewing, and assessing pertinent issues at each of the incineration sites, and for developing findings and recommendations to address these concerns. The committee in turn is grateful to the Chemical Materials Agency, its staff, field offices, and site contractors for the timely and useful information they provided. We also greatly appreciate the support and assistance of the National Research Council (NRC) staff who ably assisted the committee in its fact-finding activities and in the production of this report. The study was conducted under the auspices of the National Research Council’s Board on Army Science and Technology (BAST). The BAST was established in 1982 as a unit of the National Research Council at the request of the United States Army. The BAST brings to bear broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise on Army technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Army leaders. The board discusses potential studies of interest; develops and frames study tasks; ensures proper project planning; suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent ad hoc study committees; and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. Board members with appropriate expertise are sometimes nominated to serve as formal members of study committees, or as report reviewers. The board members listed in this report were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release. Elisabeth Drake, Chair Otis Shelton, Vice Chair Committee on Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Joan B. Berkowitz, Farkas Berkowitz & Company, Michael Crandall, University of Washington, Deborah Grubbe, British Petroleum (BP) PLC, Allen F. Grum, Army Research Laboratory (retired), Dennis C. Hendershot, Chilworth Technology Inc., Neal Langerman, Advanced Chemical Safety Inc., Richard S. Magee, Carmagen Engineering Inc., Douglas M. Medville, MITRE (retired), George W. Parshall, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (retired), Joseph E. Pecoraro, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Corporation, and Robert B. Puyear, Consultant, Chesterfield, Missouri. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry J. Hatch, Army Chief of Engineers (retired). Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   9      Brief History of Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program,   9      Focus and Implementation of This Continuing Operability Study,   11      Statement of Task,   13      Report Structure,   13      References,   13 2   POTENTIAL PROBLEMS RELATING TO OBSOLESCENCE IN CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION PROCESSING OPERATIONS   15      Incineration Facilities for Chemical Stockpile Disposal,   15      Incineration System Process Equipment,   16      Overview,   16      Spare and Replacement Parts Availability,   17      Disassembly Robotics,   19      Furnaces and Afterburners,   20      PAS/PFS Gas Cleaning Systems,   22      Process Control Systems,   22      Monitoring Systems,   25      Facility Personnel,   25      Operating Procedures,   26      Maintenance Procedures,   26      References,   26 3   SITE-RELATED MEANS FOR EFFECTING CONTINUING OPERABILITY   27      Obsolescence Management,   27      The Impacts of Obsolescence,   27      High Reliability Organizations,   27      Obsolescence Management Planning,   28      Site Safety and Environmental Management,   29      Configuration Management,   29      Management of Change,   30      Critical Safety and Emergency Systems,   31      Environmental Compliance and Waste Handling Systems,   32

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment      Personnel Management,   33      Knowledge Sharing,   33      Personnel Retention,   34      Personnel Training and Procedures,   35      Incorporating Human Factors into Changes,   35      Site-Specific Issues,   36      At TOCDF,   36      At PBCDF,   36      At NECDF,   37      Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) Facility Design and Operations Applications,   37      References,   37 4   INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS   38      Overview,   38      Planning and Decision Making,   38      Detailed Obsolescence Assessment of Disposal Site Information Management,   39      Physical Facilities,   39      Commercially Available Software,   41      Software Development,   43 5   PROGRAMWIDE INFLUENCES ON CONTINUING OPERABILITY   45      Program Management,   45      Evolution of the Present Program Management Structure,   45      Army CMA/Field Office/System Contractor Interactions,   48      Effects of Shifting Site Responsibility Largely to Contractor,   49      Obsolescence Management,   49      Organizational Management and Specialized Expertise Resources,   50      Performance Indicators, Incentives, and Their Effectiveness,   50      Command, Control, and Communications Channels,   51      Lessons Learned,   51      Configuration Management,   51      Funding,   51      Impacts on Closure,   52      Community and Regulatory Issues,   53      References,   53     APPENDIXES          A  Committee Meetings and Sites Visits   57      B  Volatility Characteristics of Information Management and Technology Systems   59      C  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   61

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES S-1   Tier-Level Hierarchy for Related Recommendations,   5 1-1   Stockpile Sites and Disposal Status as of January 2006,   11 1-2   Tier-Level Hierarchy for Related Recommendations,   14 FIGURES 1-1   Conceptual framework for achieving continuing operability,   12 2-1   Schematic of the baseline incineration system,   17 2-2   Schematic of chemical demilitarization incineration furnaces and a typical pollution abatement system without carbon filter,   21 2-3   Schematic of the chemical demilitarization pollution abatement system for the metal parts furnace with carbon filter,   23 2-4   Schematic of the current TOCDF process control system architecture,   23 2-5   Schematic of the future TOCDF process control system architecture,   24 5-1   General organizational structure for the chemical stockpile disposal program management pre-2002,   46 5-2   General organizational structure for the chemical stockpile disposal program management post-2003,   47 BOXES 1-1   Some Historic Milestones in the U.S. Chemical Weapons Program,   10 3-1   ANCDF Incident as Reported in the Anniston Star,   31

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment Abbreviations ABCDF Aberdeen Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Maryland) ACAMS automatic continuous air monitoring system ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives ANCDF Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Alabama) BAST Board on Army Science and Technology BDS bulk drain station BGCAPP Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (Kentucky) BHS bulk handling system CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System CDTF Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility (Edgewood, Maryland) CHB container handling building CMA (U.S. Army) Chemical Materials Agency CWC Chemical Weapons Convention DAAMS depot area air monitoring system DCD Deseret Chemical Depot (Utah) DCP document change procedure DFS deactivation furnace system DOD Department of Defense DOT Department of Transportation DPE demilitarization protective ensemble DPPBI Director’s Programmatic Performance-Based Incentive ECP engineering change proposal ECR explosion containment room GA tabun (a nerve agent) GB sarin (a nerve agent) H sulfur mustard HAZWOPER hazardous waste and emergency response (standard) HD sulfur mustard (distilled) HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HMI human-machine interface HRO high reliability organization HT sulfur mustard, T-mustard mixture HVAC heating, ventilation and air conditioning I/O input/output JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (South Pacific Ocean) LAN local area network LIC liquid agent incinerator MACT maximum achievable control technology MDB munitions demilitarization building MDMs multipurpose demilitarization machines MHS mine handling system MiniCAMS miniature chemical agent monitoring system MM mine machine (drain station) MPB munitions processing bay or building MPF metal parts furnace NECDF Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Indiana) NRC National Research Council OEM original equipment manufacturer OEM-LP obsolescent equipment management lifecycle program OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration

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Assessment of the Continuing Operability of Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities and Equipment PAS pollution abatement system PBCDF Pine Bluff Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Arkansas) PCAPP Pueblo Chemical Agent-Destruction Pilot Plant (Colorado) PDARS process data acquisition and recording system PFS PAS carbon bed filter system PHS projectile handling system PLCs programmable logic controllers PMCD program manager for chemical demilitarization PMCSD project manager for chemical stockpile demilitarization PMCSE project manager for chemical stockpile elimination PMD projectile or mortar disassembly (machine) RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RFID radio frequency identification RHS rocket handling system RIR recordable injury rate RSM rocket shear machine SCBA self-contained breathing apparatus TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Utah) UMCDF Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Oregon) UPA unpack area VX a nerve agent

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