MATERIALS RESEARCH TO MEET 21st CENTURY DEFENSE NEEDS

Interim Report

Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

Publication NMAB-498

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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MATERIALS RESEARCH TO MEET 21st CENTURY DEFENSE NEEDS Interim Report Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council Publication NMAB-498 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was conducted under a contract with the U.S. Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 202-334-3505 202-334-3506 nmab@nas.edu Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON MATERIALS RESEARCH FOR DEFENSE AFTER NEXT HARVEY SCHADLER (chair), General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (retired), Schenectady, New York ALAN LOVELACE (vice chair), General Dynamics Corporation (retired), La Jolla, California JAMES BASKERVILLE, Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine FEDERICO CAPASSO, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MILLARD FIREBAUGH, Electric Boat Corporation, Groton, Conneticut JOHN GASSNER, Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Newark FRANK KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MEYYA MEYYAPPAN, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California GEORGE PETERSON, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (retired), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico RICHARD TRESSLER, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JAMES WILLIAMS, Ohio State University, Columbus National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director and Senior Program Officer SHARON YEUNG, Research Associate PAT A. WILLIAMS, Administrative Assistant RICHARD CHAIT, Former Director National Materials Advisory Board Liaisons HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

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National Academy of Engineering Liaison LANCE DAVIS, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. Government Liaisons ROBERT POHANKA, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT L. RAPSON, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio JAMES R. SHOEMAKER, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, Arlington, Virginia LEWIS SLOTER, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science and Technology), Washington, D.C. DENNIS J. VIECHNICKI, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland STEVEN WAX, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Virginia

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NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD EDGAR A. STARKE (chair), University of Virginia, Charlottesville EARL DOWELL, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cleveland Cliffs, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio THOMAS EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus ALASTAIR M. GLASS, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JOHN A.S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Inc., Washington, D.C. THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW, Redmond, Washington ALLAN J. JACOBSON, University of Houston, Houston, Texas MICHAEL JAFFE, New Jersey Institute of Technology and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan LISA KLEIN, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University (emeritus), Dayton, Ohio ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola, Schaumburg, Illinois JULIA PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg T. S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois National Materials Advisory Board Staff ARUL MOZHI, Acting Director

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Acknowledgments The Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next thanks all of the participants in the study meetings, which were the principal data-gathering sessions for this study. The information and insight from the participants were invaluable to the committee. The committee also thanks the individuals who prepared presentations for the study meetings. Presenters included: Mark Alper, University of California, Berkeley; Michael Andrews, U.S. Department of the Army; Bertram Batlogg, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies; Andrew Crowson, U.S. Army Research Office; Hon. Lawrence Delaney, U.S. Air Force; Ronald DeMarco, Office of Naval Research; Daniel Doughty, Sandia National Laboratories; Anthony Evans, Princeton University; Stephen Foiles, Sandia National Laboratories; Robert Gottschall, U.S. Department of Energy; Gen. Al Gray, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies; Kenneth Harwell, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory; LtC. Lonnie Henley, Defense Intelligence Agency; Fred Herman, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Corporation; Paul Kaminski, Technovation, Inc.; Andrew W. Marshall, Office of the Secretary of Defense; Bruce Pierce, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; Lyle Schwartz, U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research; Samuel Stupp, Northwestern University; Michael Vickers, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments; and Tom Weber, National Science Foundation. The committee is particularly grateful to the following U.S. Department of Defense study sponsors and liaisons for their support: Robert Pohanka, Office of Naval Research; Robert Rapson, Wright Patterson Air Force Base; Maj. James Shoemaker, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization; Lew Sloter, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science and Technology); Dennis Viechnicki, U.S. Army Research Laboratory; and Steven Wax, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank

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the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: David Clarke, University of California-Santa Barbara; Tobin Marks, Northwestern University; Robert Newnham, Pennsylvania State University; James Richardson, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies; and Julia Weertman, Northwestern University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Wachtman, Jr., Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (retired), appointed by the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, the panel gratefully acknowledges the support of the staff of the National Materials Advisory Board, especially Arul Mozhi, study director; Sharon Yeung, research associate, Pat A. Williams, administrative assistant; and Richard Chait, former staff director.

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Preface The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), conduct a study to identify and prioritize critical materials and processing research and development (R&D) that will be needed to meet twenty-first-century defense needs. The Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next was established to investigate investments in R&D required to meet both intermediate (up to 2020) and long-term (beyond 2020) DOD needs. The committee’s focus is on revolutionary materials concepts that would provide an advantage to U.S. forces in weapons logistics, deployment, and cost. The following specific tasks will be addressed by the committee: Review DOD planning documents and input from DOD systems development experts to identify long-term technical requirements for weapons system development and support. Develop materials needs and overall materials priorities based on DOD requirements. Establish and guide approximately five study panels to investigate identified priority areas and recommend specific research opportunities. Integrate and prioritize the research opportunities recommended by the study panels. Recommend means to integrate M&P advances into new system designs. The committee began by attending the Defense Science and Technology Reliance Subarea for Materials and Processes Meeting, on December 6–8, 1999, in Annapolis, Maryland. This was followed by a second committee meeting. The objective of these two meetings was to learn DOD’s ideas on long-term future systems, logistics, and cost. A third meeting was held with materials experts from industry, academia, and national laboratories to determine research opportunities that could be realized in the 20-year to 30-year time frame specified for this study. A fourth meeting was held to analyze the data that had been gathered and finalize the draft of this interim report. This report is a review of the study results to date and a plan for future committee activities to meet the study objectives.

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The chair and vice chair thank the committee members for their participation in committee meetings and their efforts and dedication in the preparation of this interim report. We also thank the speakers and participants, including DOD study sponsors and liaisons, as well as the staff of the NMAB, especially Arul Mozhi, who coordinated the meetings and provided substantial assistance in the preparation and publication of this interim report. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to (202) 334-3718. HARVEY SCHADLER, chair ALAN LOVELACE, vice chair Committee on Materials Research for Defense After Next

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Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   9     Study Plan and Methodology,   9     Statement of Task for the Overall Study,   11     Anticipated Study Results,   12 2   TRANSLATING SYSTEMS NEEDS INTO MATERIALS NEEDS   13     Generic Defense Needs,   13     Examples of Systems Needs,   15     Translation to Materials Needs,   16 3   RESEARCH PRIORITIES   19     System Motivation for Materials and Process Needs,   19     Classes of Materials and Process Needs,   27 4   MATERIALS SCIENCE CHALLENGES   31     Structural and Multifunctional Materials,   32     Energy and Power Materials,   37     Electronic and Photonic Materials,   44     Functional Organic and Hybrid Materials,   47     Bio-derived and Bio-inspired Materials,   51     REFERENCES   55     APPENDIXES     A   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   57 B   Meeting Agendas,   61 C   Schedule and Membership of the Five Technical Panels,   71 D   Preliminary Outlines of Panel Reports,   73

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Figures and Boxes FIGURES 1-1   Overall methodology for the study,   10 4-1   Areas included in and excluded from the energy and power materials panel,   40 BOXES ES-1   Material types for Defense After Next,   4 ES-2   Crosscutting Materials Properties,   4 ES-3   Crosscutting Issues,   5 3-1   Material types for Defense After Next,   20 3-2   Crosscutting Materials Properties,   22 3-3   Crosscutting Issues,   24 3-3   DOD Materials and Processing Needs and the Five Technical Panels,   28 4-1   Scope of the Bio-derived and Bio-inspired Materials Panel,   52