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Foreign and Foreign-BornEng7neers in the United States INFUSING TALENT, RAISING ISSUES Committee on the International Exchange and Movement of Engineers Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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N=ICE: The p~vje~ that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gc: vernir~g Boat of the National Research Ail, whose numbers are dram from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of - Snaring, and the Institute of Medicine. mis report has been revived by a group other than the authors according to pi approved by a Report Review remittee consisting of embers of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Er~ir~eering, and the Institute of Medicine. Ibe National Academy of Sciences is a private, r~opprofit, self-perpet- uniting society of distinguished scholars Paged in scientific and e~gin~rir~ Prearm, dad; cased to the fur of science anal techno- logy and to their use for the gereral welfare. An the authority of the charter granted to it by me Cordless ~ 1963, the Eddy has a m~rxiate that requires it to advise the federal gaverrm~t on scientific and tedhni- cal matters He Fork Pass is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous In its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Going also Sponsors jeering programs aid at riveting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieves of engineers. Dr. R~ M. Mite is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Ir~stitute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of Ernest firs of appropri- ate professions In the examination of policy mates pertaining to the h~_1 ah ~P The ~1 ;~ ~ Teal ;~ ^~ '~ ~ `~ ~:~:] :~ ~;~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~1 Vet ~= ~10. 111= ~1~ "~ ~ ~1C 1W~1~ ~ ~ ~ ~} ylV~1 TV the Natior~1 Academy of Sciences by its congressional dharcer to be an adviser to the federal gaverrment and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, regear=, arm education. Dr. Samuel 0. Their is president of the Institute of icicle. me National Research Council was organized by the National Avidly of Sciences In 1916 to associate the broad community of science and-technology with the Academy's pNrpcses of furthering knowledge and advising the fed- eral government. Functioning ~ accordance with gene ~ policies deter- mlned by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engln^=rLng in providing serviced to the government, the public, and the scientif ic and eng~n~ring caman~nities. me Gil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of medicine. Dr. Eric Press arid rear. Part M. mite are chairman arid vice dhainnan, restively, of the National Research Council. This material is bash Won work supported ~ part by the National Academy of Engineering Technological T-Eldership Program. Copies are available from: Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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FOREWORD The U.S. engineering enterprise is increasingly affected by forces at the world level. It is affected, for example, by the extent of op- portunities to export our engineering services, by the use of global standards IN products and processes, by the nifty of U.S. firms to hire large numbers of engineers and to seek to make the best use of avail- able skills in their work, by the desire of foreign-born engineers to study and work In America, and by the national interest in maintaining a large number of technically challenging, high-paying jobs in our coun- try. . As this report points out, many real and perceived benefits and problems come with the international exchange and Inclement of engi- neers. Many questions arise: Are foreign engineers and engineering students displacing Americans? Does the presence of foreign engineers in the work force lower engineering wages? ~ benefit from the availability of foreign-born engineers? Should the de- pendence on foreign-born engineers In our universities and industry be of concern? This report provides much sound factual information that will be valuable to our government, universities. and industry In addressing these controversial issues. neers in cur work forge and in academe. . ~. In wnat wars Toes Industry ~ - .~ _ It gives balanced judgments about engi- It points out a number of ne- glecrea perspecclves' for example, that foreign students arriving at our universities may/ in effect/ subsidize our system' In that a large investment in their educations has already been made by their home coun- tries. As the report makes cd ear, there are several areas in which we need to improve our data and ~formation. It would be helpful to know more about career patterns of those foreign engineering students who do not remain in the United States. We should learn more about U.S. engi- neers studying and working abroad. We should examine more deeply the barriers to the most effective use of engineering talent in the United States. The marketplace for engineering skills can only become more global r and only through having unexcelled talent and productivity in engineering--in industry, academe, and government--can the Un, ten States be confident that the profession, and the highly desirable jobs that characterize it, will thrive here. Robert M. White Vice Chairman, National Research Council President, National Academy of Engineering . . .

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COMMITTEE ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE AND MOVEMENT OF ENGINEERS Stanford S. Penner, Chair (NAE) Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Sciences University of California, San Diego Richard V. L. Cooper Partner, International Trade Services Coopers and Lybrand orge C. Dacey (NAE) President (retired) Sandia National Laboratories Jules LaPidus President Council of Graduate Schools staff Linda DLX Staff Officer Yupin Bae smrch Assistant Consultant Charles E. FaIk Stephen J. I~sik Vice President Northrop Corporation Flare B. McDonald (~S) Chief Scientist NOVA Heady Dorothy S. Firm . on Public Polity/ Savor Rearm Associate Kennedy School of G=ren~nt Harvard University liaison to OSEP's Advisory Colr~nittee on Studies and Analyses LDtfi Zadeh Department of Ccmput~r Sciences Um versity of California, Berkeley iv

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS lhe Remittee on the International Exhale and ~nrerrent of Engi- neer'; is grateful for the Special assistance that it r~ived frown a newer Of individuals. Staff Of the National Academy of Er~neering (NAE) initiate plans for this stupor as a result of concerns pressed by Ampere of the NAE Ceil. _ . . We particularly appreciate the guidance of Robert M. White' NAE president; Alexander H. Flax, home secretary of the NAE; H. Guyford Stever, foreign secretary of the NAE; and Jesse H. Ausubel, director of the NAE program office. Alan E. Fechter, execu- tive director of the Office of Scientific and Eng Leering Personnel (OSEP), contributed significantly to the intellectual content of this report. Charles E. FaLk, former director of the Division of Science Resources Studies at the National Science Foundation, served as a special consultant to the study committ^-, providing helpful insights in the areas of data collection an] interpretation. Linda S. Dlx, project officer IN OSEP, provided administrative oversight for the study from its inception through production of the fin21 report. In addition, we are ind ebbed to the research community for infor- matian provided ~ the form of published reports, papers commissioned by this committee, and participation at the committee's workshop on July 7, 1987. The commissioned papers written by seven individuals knowledgeable about this topic were presented and discussed at the workshop, leading to additional insights that guide] the committee in its deliberations. me committee expresses much appreciation to the authors: Peter Cannon, Rockwell International Corporation, for his assessment of the role of foreign engineers in U.S. industry; Daniel C. Drucker, University of Florida-Gainesville, and J. Enrique Luco, Un~- versity of ra~ifornia-San Diego, for their thoughts about the impacts of foreign faculty and foreign students on eng Jeering departments in U.S. universities; Michael G. Finn, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, for his analyses of the participation of foreign engineers in the overall U.S. labor force; Glenn W. Schwa, Sandia National Laboratories, for his assessment of the effects of employing foreign nationals in fed- erally supported laboratories; and Charles T. Owens, Division of Ihter- national Programs at the National Science Foundation, for his review of the experiences of American eng Leers in Japan. Finally, the support of Yup m Bae, research assistant in OSEP, and Dee Cooper, program secretary, led to the timely publication of this report. v

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CONTENTS EXE=~rVE SPRY Introduction Facings Issues Dep~enae on Foreign~Born Er~neers Foreign Er~meering Students Effects on E=~n~rir~g Education limitations In the Engineering Sadly Available to the National Security Sector International Interactions of African Engineers Data Gaps beam Work Opportunities for U.S. Er~neers Subsidization of Foreign Students Exclusion of U.S. Graduate Students or Junior Facade Broader Considerations and l~ndations C=WND IS~ ~ ~ Dependency of Institutions on Foreign Shirkers Displacement of U.S. Errs and Lawe:rir~ of Salaries Graduate Errs and Bees Federal Pupations Con q The Use and E]nploy~nt of Foreign Engineers Relative Perfozman~ of Foreign and Foreign-Bon Engineers must Acaderre International Torrents and Contacts of American ~rs :RE~ONS Inflow of Noncitizen Engineers and Engineering Students Shortage Charges: Increasing Fell~ips with Acetate Stipends for U.S. Graduate Students The brown Solution: Augment - Snaring Education for U. S. Students Monitoring of Potential Noble; Among Noncitizen Faculty and leaching Assistants Lance; inE)2gineering Education andU.S. C'ompetitiv~ess in International Markets Data Gaps vii 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 9 5 5 7 18 20 2 2 2 22 25 25 26 26 27 27 28

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BIBLI~IY AE~ND~; A . Foreign Engined; arm Engm~ring Scents In the Unity States, Charles E. Falk B: Agenda' Workshop on the International Enlarge arc Movement of Engineers; 29 31 79 C: Participants at the Workshop 83 D: Ccmrnissioned Papers presented at the Workshop Foreign Engineers In the U.S. Labor Force, Michael G. Firm Foreign Engineers in U.S. ~ ustry: An Exploratory Assessment, Peter Cannon m e Job ~ rket for Holders of Baccalaureate Degrees in Engineering, Charles E. FaIk on Foreign Engineers m Academe, Daniel C. Drucker Effect of Foreign Nationals on Federally Supporbed Laboratories, Glenn W. Xhewa American Eng meers in Japan, Charles T. Owens The Impact of Foreign Students on the Engineering Programs at the University of California, J. E. Luco LISI OF EI(~ 1 2 3 4 5 89 91 105 125 127 147 163 167 Eng beers in the U.S. labor forge, by citizenship stains and d Urge laurel, 1982 Distribution of foreign eng beers, by sector of employment, 1982 Engineering doctorates awarded to U.S. citizens and those holding te ~ vary visas, 1970-1985 Foreign engineering students, by area of origin, 1983-84 Foreigners as proportion of all engine-ring assistant professors, age 35 or less, 1975-1985 viii 10 11 12 13 16