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TABLE C-2 Epidemiological Considerations Important for Causal Inference (1959-1973)

Lilienfeld (1959)

Sartwell (1960)

Surgeon General (1964); Susser (1973)

Hill (1965)

MacMahon and Pugh (1970)

Consistency

Replication

Consistency

Consistency

Strength of association (including magnitude of association and dose response)

Magnitude of effect

Strength of association

Strength of association (including magnitude of effect of dose-response)

Strength of association

 

Dose-response

Dose-response

 

Biological gradiant

Temporality

Experimentation

Temporality

Temporality

Temporality

Experimentation

Biological mechanism

Biological reasonableness

Biological coherence

Experimental evidence

Consonance with existing knowledge

   

Specificity

Biological plausibility

Biological mechanism

     

Biological coherence

Consistency

     

Specificity

Exclusion of alternative explanations

     

Analogy

 
Source: Adapted from Weed 1995.


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