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. "Appendix C: Human Study Designs." Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.
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Surgeon General (1964); Susser (1973)
MacMahon and Pugh (1970)
Strength of association (including magnitude of association and dose response)
Magnitude of effect
Strength of association
Strength of association (including magnitude of effect of dose-response)
Consonance with existing knowledge
Exclusion of alternative explanations