We continue our discussion of diversity and addressing heterogeneous audiences by presenting examples of how various campaigns have worked to reach the audiences. In doing so, we leave behind this alternative perspective on how campaigns have effects, and its somewhat chastening view about limits on how far one can and should go in implementing segmentation, or at least how helpful a research base will be in informing the right choices.
Health campaigns can be refined for diverse audiences by adapting behavior change goals so that they are relevant, appropriate, and appealing to diverse audiences. A variety of campaigns reviewed for this volume capitalized on communication efforts by promoting different behavioral goals among audience segments that differed with respect to their relation to the targeted behavior or health condition.
Recognizing that an individual’s relationship and exposure to a specific health risk behavior is likely to change with lifecycle stage, many communication campaigns promote different behavioral goals based on the various age groups in the intended audience. For example, the Florida Tobacco Pilot Program promotes different antismoking-related messages to youth, depending on their age and smoking status. The focus of messages ranges from the prevention of smoking initiation among younger teens and currently nonsmoking older youth to the discussion of smoking cessation techniques and strategies to maintain cessation among current smokers and older teens.
Furthermore, because individual, familial, and societal roles change with age, some campaigns promote different behaviors to adults and youth. In effect, the campaigns develop unique interventions that focus on different aspects of the same health problem. For the prevention of drug use, the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign promotes messages about the rejection of drug use to youth and also promotes messages to adult role models, such as parents and teachers, about the need to monitor youth