that tailored letters about mammography had a significant subgroup effect on African-American women. Lipkus and colleagues (Lipkus, Lyna, and Rimer, 1999) found that tailored birthday letters and newsletters had a highly significant effect on smoking quit rates among low-income African-Americans, especially men. Campbell et al. (1994) showed that a combination of tailored church bulletins and other culturally appropriate interventions resulted in significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in a low-income African-American population. In a study of blue-collar women, Campbell et al. (2002) found increases in several behaviors, including fruit and vegetable consumption, flexibility exercise, and short-term change in fat intake, but no changes in smoking or cervical cancer screening in a worksite program that also included natural helpers. Kreuter, Vehige, and McGuire (1996) reported that a tailored calendar improved the rate at which parents adhered to their children’s immunization schedules. Myers and colleagues (1999) demonstrated that an enhanced intervention composed of telephone and print materials tailored to African-American men with no previous history of prostate cancer resulted in increased adherence to early detection for prostate cancer. Becona and Vazquez (2001) showed that the combination of a standard self-help smoking cessation intervention and tailored letters resulted in a significant improvement over self-help alone for Hispanic smokers, with impressive abstinence rates.
Nansel et al. (2002) tested the efficacy of tailored print materials produced for parents to reduce child injury-promoting behaviors in the home and car in a primarily minority sample. McBride et al. (2002) extended previous work on genetic susceptibility and tobacco control by examining the use of feedback about a genetic biomarker of cancer susceptibility to increase smoking cessation in a low-income African-American population. At 6 months (but not at 12 months), there was a significant difference between those who received TPCs with biomarker feedback (19-percent quit rate) versus enhanced usual care (10-percent quit rate). These studies are encouraging. They show that for a wide range of topics, TPCs are efficacious for both white and ethnic minority populations. In