fixed level of resources—the same amount of money, testing time, or tasks— the designer can choose where an assessment will fall along this spectrum. Following are two examples related to the fidelity-bandwidth (or depth versus breadth) trade-offs that inevitably arise in the design of educational assessments. They illustrate the point that the more purposes one attempts to serve with a single assessment, the less well that assessment can serve any given purpose.

Trade-Offs in Assessment Design: Examples
Accountability Versus Instructional Guidance for Individual Students

The first example expands on the contrast between classroom and largescale assessments described above. A starting point is the desire for statewide accountability tests to be more helpful to teachers or the question of why assessment designers cannot incorporate in the tests items that are closely tied to the instructional activities in which students are engaged (i.e., assessment tasks such as those effective teachers use in their classrooms). To understand why this has not been done, one must look at the distinct purposes served by standardized achievement tests and classroom quizzes: who the users are, what they already know, and what they want to learn.

In this example, the chief state school officer wants to know whether students have been studying the topics identified in the state standards. (Actually, by assessing these topics, the officer wants to increase the likelihood that students will be studying them.) But there are many curriculum standards, and she or he certainly cannot ascertain whether each has been studied by every student. A broad sample from each student is better for his or her purposes—not enough information to determine the depth or the nature of any student’s knowledge across the statewide curriculum, but enough to see trends across schools and districts about broad patterns of performance. This information can be used to plan funding and policy decisions for the coming year.

The classroom teacher wants to know how well an individual student, or class of students, is learning the things they have been studying and what they ought to be working on next. What is important is the match among what the teacher already knows about the things students have been working on, what the teacher needs to learn about their current understanding, and how that knowledge will help shape what the students should do now to learn further.

For the chief state school officer, the ultimate question is whether larger aggregates of students (such as schools, districts, or states) have had “the opportunity to learn.” The state assessment is constructed to gather information to support essentially the same inference about all students, so the

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