useful to a teacher and student during the course of instruction, large-scale summative assessments should be based on a model of learning that is compatible with and derived from the same set of knowledge and beliefs about learning as classroom assessment.

Research on cognition and learning suggests a broad range of competencies that should be assessed when measuring student achievement, many of which are essentially untapped by current assessments. Examples are knowledge organization, problem representation, strategy use, metacognition, and kinds of participation in activity (e.g., formulating questions, constructing and evaluating arguments, contributing to group problem solving). Furthermore, large-scale assessments should provide information about the nature of student understanding, rather than simply ranking students according to general proficiency estimates.

A major problem is that only limited improvements in large-scale assessments are possible under current constraints and typical standardized testing scenarios. Returning to issues of constraints and trade-offs discussed earlier in this chapter, large-scale assessments are designed to serve certain purposes under constraints that often include providing reliable and comparable scores for individuals as well as groups; sampling a broad set of curriculum standards within a limited testing time per student; and offering cost-efficiency in terms of development, scoring, and administration. To meet these kinds of demands, designers typically create assessments that are given at a specified time, with all students taking the same (or parallel) tests under strictly standardized conditions (often referred to as “on-demand” assessment). Tasks are generally of the kind that can be presented in paper-and-pencil format, that students can respond to quickly, and that can be scored reliably and efficiently. In general, competencies that lend themselves to being assessed in these ways are tapped, while aspects of learning that cannot be observed under such constrained conditions are not addressed. To design new kinds of situations for capturing the complexity of cognition and learning will require examining the assumptions and values that currently drive assessment design choices and breaking out of the current paradigm to explore alternative approaches to large-scale assessment.

Alternative Approaches

To derive real benefits from the merger of cognitive and measurement theory in large-scale assessment requires finding ways to cover a broad range of competencies and to capture rich information about the nature of student understanding. This is true even if the information produced is at a coarse-grained as opposed to a highly detailed level. To address these challenges it is useful to think about the constraints and trade-offs associated

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