performance in a domain. The DISC developers addressed this issue by basing the simulations on extensive research into the ways hygienists at various levels of expertise approach problems.

The DISC computerized assessment is being developed for a consortium of dental organizations for the purpose of simulating the work performed by dental hygienists as a means of providing direct evidence about how candidates for licensure would interact with patients. The foundation for the assessment was a detailed analysis of the knowledge hygienists apply when they assess patients, plan treatments, and monitor progress; the analysis was derived from interviews with and observations of several expert and competent hygienists and novice students of dental hygiene. Thus, the initial phase of the effort involved building the student model by using some of the methods for cognitive analysis described in Chapter 3.

The interactive, computer-based simulation presents the examinee with a case study of a virtual patient with a problem such as bruxism (chronic teeth grinding). The simulation provides evidence about such key points as whether the examinee detects the condition, explores connections with the patient’s history and lifestyle, and discusses implications. Some information, such as the patient’s medical history questionnaire, is provided up front. Other information, such as radiographs, is made available only if the examinee requests it. Additional information stored in the system is used to perform dynamic computations of the patient’s status, depending on the actions taken by the examinee.

This mode of assessment has several advantages. It can tap skills that could not be measured by traditional licensing exams. The scenarios are open-ended to capture how the examinee would act in a typical professional situation. And the protocols are designed to discern behaviors at various levels of competency, based on actual practices of hygienists.

MashpeeQuest is an example of an assessment designed to tap complex problem solving in the K-12 education context. As described by Mislevy, Steinberg, Almond, Haertel, and Penuel (2000), researchers at SRI International have developed an on-line performance task to use as an evaluation tool for Classroom Connect’s AmericaQuest instructional program. One of the goals of AmericaQuest is to help students learn to develop persuasive arguments supported by evidence they acquire from the course’s website or their own research. The MashpeeQuest assessment task gives students an opportunity to put these skills to use in a web-based environment that structures their work (see Box 7–1). In this example, technology plays at least two roles in enabling the assessment of complex problem solving. The first is conceptual: the information analysis skills to be assessed and the behaviors that serve as evidence are embedded within a web-based environment. The second role is more operational: since actions take place in a technological environment, some of the observations of student performance can be made



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