EVA L.BAKER is a professor in the Divisions of Psychological Studies in Education and Social Research Methodologies, and acting dean of the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is also co-director of the Center for the Study of Evaluation. Her research focuses on the integration of teaching and measurement, including the design of instructional systems and new measures of complex human performances. She served on the NRC Panel on Data Confidentiality, the Committee on Title I Testing and Assessment, and the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Education Reform. She currently chairs the NRC’s Board on Testing and Assessment. She received an Ed.D. from the University of California, Los Angeles.

GAIL P.BAXTER is a research scientist in the Center for Performance Assessment of the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey. She has also served as an assistant professor in the School of Education at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Her work focuses on issues of assessment, particularly the quality and cognitive complexity of science performance assessments. Her service with the NRC includes membership on the Committee on the Evaluation of National and State Assessments of Educational Progress. She received a Ph.D. in education from the University of California, Santa Barbara.

PAUL JOSEPH BLACK is an emeritus professor of science education at King’s College in London, England. He is chair of the International Commission on Physics Education and a vice-president of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. He was consultant to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) project on innovations in science, mathematics, and technology education in OECD member countries. His NRC service has included membership on the Board on Testing and Assessment, participation in a Working Group on Science Assessment Standards, and the NRC Committee on Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards. He received a Ph.D. in physics from Cambridge University.

NAOMI CHUDOWSKY is a senior program officer in the NRC’s Board on Testing and Assessment. She has also worked for the U.S. Department of Education and the Connecticut State Department of Education on the development of student assessments. She received a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stanford University.

CHRISTOPHER L.DEDE is Timothy E.Wirth Professor in Learning Technologies and co-director of the Technology in Education Program in the Harvard University Graduate School of Education. He has also served as a

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