Index

A

ADAM, see Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program

Adaptive response to enforcement, 5, 157– 158, 159, 172–174

Addiction, 23, 25, 37, 141–142, 223

see also Frequency of drug use;

Treatment programs

historical response, 17, 18

neuroscience, 37, 38–42, 51, 243–244, 274

dose-response relationships, 41, 57– 60, 62, 230

price factors, 45–46, 141–142

social factors, 49, 52, 59

surveys, 81, 82–83, 85

Addiction Severity Index, 247, 248, 262

Adolescents, 47, 51, 197, 200, 302–303

see also Monitoring the Future;

School-based data and approaches

arrestees, 84, 189–190, 317

cocaine use, 199–200, 303, 318

consumption data, 79, 80, 192, 308

crime associated with drug abuse, 47, 190

dropouts, 87, 94(n.10)

employment, 309

family preventive interventions, 209–210

historical perspectives, 189–190, 302, 329, 330–332, 334–344

Juvenile Court Statistics, 316

marijuana use, 192, 199–200, 303, 318

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 98, 169, 309, 337

National Youth Survey, 309

peer influences, 38, 42, 50, 51, 52, 187, 194, 220, 223–224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 309

preventive interventions, 138, 209–210, 217, 220, 223–224, 226, 227, 230, 231

school-based, 8, 19, 137, 209, 211– 213, 219–221, 224–225, 228–229, 230, 232, 233, 234

drug testing, 33, 202–203, 233

survey response problems, 8, 30, 82, 93– 100, 321–344

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 302, 310, 318

African Americans, 179–181, 197, 304

AIDS, 55, 59, 103–104, 105, 298, 303, 376

Alcohol abuse, 8, 23, 308, 316

adolescent arrestees, 190

crime associated with, 64, 301

Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, 91, 93, 304

genetic factors, 49

illicit drug use and, 9, 23, 34, 217, 218, 221, 233–234



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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Index A ADAM, see Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program Adaptive response to enforcement, 5, 157– 158, 159, 172–174 Addiction, 23, 25, 37, 141–142, 223 see also Frequency of drug use; Treatment programs historical response, 17, 18 neuroscience, 37, 38–42, 51, 243–244, 274 dose-response relationships, 41, 57– 60, 62, 230 price factors, 45–46, 141–142 social factors, 49, 52, 59 surveys, 81, 82–83, 85 Addiction Severity Index, 247, 248, 262 Adolescents, 47, 51, 197, 200, 302–303 see also Monitoring the Future; School-based data and approaches arrestees, 84, 189–190, 317 cocaine use, 199–200, 303, 318 consumption data, 79, 80, 192, 308 crime associated with drug abuse, 47, 190 dropouts, 87, 94(n.10) employment, 309 family preventive interventions, 209–210 historical perspectives, 189–190, 302, 329, 330–332, 334–344 Juvenile Court Statistics, 316 marijuana use, 192, 199–200, 303, 318 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 98, 169, 309, 337 National Youth Survey, 309 peer influences, 38, 42, 50, 51, 52, 187, 194, 220, 223–224, 226, 227, 230, 231, 309 preventive interventions, 138, 209–210, 217, 220, 223–224, 226, 227, 230, 231 school-based, 8, 19, 137, 209, 211– 213, 219–221, 224–225, 228–229, 230, 232, 233, 234 drug testing, 33, 202–203, 233 survey response problems, 8, 30, 82, 93– 100, 321–344 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 302, 310, 318 African Americans, 179–181, 197, 304 AIDS, 55, 59, 103–104, 105, 298, 303, 376 Alcohol abuse, 8, 23, 308, 316 adolescent arrestees, 190 crime associated with, 64, 301 Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, 91, 93, 304 genetic factors, 49 illicit drug use and, 9, 23, 34, 217, 218, 221, 233–234

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us neurological factors, 39, 41 police crackdowns, 172–173 price factors, 142 prison inmate surveys, 92, 298, 299, 300 school-based sanctions, 201 social factors, 49 supply-reduction policy, 141(n.1), 142 survey response problems, 94(n.9), 100 treatment, 91, 93, 241, 300, 304, 305, 311, 376 Uniform Facility Dataset, 93, 304 Alcohol and Crime, 301 American Hospital Association, see Drug Abuse Warning Network American Management Association, 198 Americans with Disabilities Act, 198 Amity program, 357 Amphetamines, 39, 100, 102, 142, 242, 303, 304 Annual Survey of Jails, 298 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, 195–196 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program, 7–8, 24, 77, 80–81, 84–85, 101, 276, 309, 336, 338 linkage with other databases, 7, 89, 91– 92 price data, 111 sampling, 7, 88, 89, 90, 104–105, 111, 309 Arrests, 7–8, 24, 77, 80–81, 84–85, 88, 89, 141, 161, 171, 173, 174, 189, 194, 317 see also Incarceration; Probation and parole adolescents, 84, 189–190, 317 attitude of dealers toward, 142–143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164, 165–166, 171 drug dealers, police agreements with, 169–170 historical perspectives, 3, 19 inaccurate responses to surveys, 98–99 international interdictions, 19 price data, 111–112, 165 racial/ethnic disparities, 51, 52, 162–164, 177, 179–180 replacement of arrested dealers, 145, 171, 172, 174–177 social organization of retail drug market, 165 supply-reduction policy, 139 treatment of arrestees, 261, 359 Uniform Crime Reports, 301, 341 Assessment of Two Cost-Effectiveness Studies of Cocaine Control Policy, 16 Athletes, drug testing, 202–203 Attitudes, 227, 308 see also Public opinion; Risk perception drug dealers, 142–143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164, 165–166, 171 sanctions, negative reactions to, 191 stigmatization, 8, 191, 197, 255, 322, 339– 346 treatment program participants, 9, 254, 255 voluntary, 242, 250, 252, 254, 256, 259, 261, 272, 302, 349, 355–362 (passim), 372, 374, 376 B Baltimore, Maryland, 167–168 Beepers, 163–164, 173, 174 Behavioral effects of drug use, 40, 51, 55, 56, 63 see also Crime associated with drug use Behavioral interventions, see Cognitive and behavioral interventions Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 91 Bolivia, 158, 159 Boston, Massachusetts, 285, 286, 287, 290, 291, 292 Bureau of Census, 28 Current Population Survey, 169 incarcerated persons, 297 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 129 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 6, 24, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 76(n.1), 92, 297–298, 299– 301, 312, 315 organization of data collection, 124, 133 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities, 92, 298 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 92, 298– 299, 316 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 300 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 92, 298, 317 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 6, 30, 128, 129, 278 drug testing, 201 price of drugs, 116, 134

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us C Caffeine, 41 Caseloads, 6, 27, 54, 365 Case management, 209–211 CDC, see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Census Bureau, see Bureau of Census Census Match Study, 96(n.13), 327 Census of Jails, 133, 298 Census of State and Federal Prisons, 298 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 91 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30, 31, 76(n.1), 91, 103–104, 105, 278, 302–303 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 302, 310, 318 CEWG, see Community Epidemiology Work Group Chicago, Illinois, 109, 113, 229, 286–287 Child abuse and neglect, 196 Child Development Project, 228 Cigarettes, see Tobacco use Cities, see Urban areas; specific cities Clinical trials, 9–10, 25, 35, 138, 242, 244– 263, 264, 367–372 Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Survey (DATOS), 55–56, 249 Cocaine, 17, 23, 52, 102, 193, 201, 221, 222, 242 adolescents, use by, 199–200, 303, 318 attitudes toward, 146 behavioral factors, 51 consumption data, 43, 46, 60–61, 78, 147, 152, 222, 285–288 crop eradication, 19, 156, 158 crop substitution, 19, 141, 156 frequency of use, 46, 61–62, 146, 192, 201 geographic substitution, 158–160 historical perspectives, 61, 147, 285–288 maternal use, 264 national satellite accounts, 118 neurological effects, 39, 40, 41 organization of data collection, 125 precursors to use, 9, 23, 34, 39 prevalence of use, 60–61, 180, 199–200, 318 previous committee studies, 2, 16, 22, 319–320 price factors, 43, 46, 106, 108–109, 110, 112–113, 114, 116, 117, 142, 160, 161, 164–165, 283–295, 320 impulse response analysis, 146, 147, 149–151, 153(n.6), 154, 155 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 racial/ethnic arrest disparities, 180 replacement of incarcerated dealers, 176–177 social factors, 51, 52, 162–164 survey response problems, 94, 99 systems research, 156, 158–160 treatment, clinical trials, 247–249, 253 treatment, general, 304, 305 methadone, 248–249 Cognitive and behavioral interventions prevention, 210, 218, 220, 224, 225, 226, 232, 234 treatment, 242, 243, 247, 248, 254 Colombia, 158, 159, 161 interdiction and price of drugs, 147, 155 national satellite accounts, 119 Comer’s School Development Process, 211 Community Epidemiology Work Group, 89, 90, 102, 105, 309 Community factors, 64, 96(n.13), 178, 194 see also Probation and parole enforcement disparities, 179–180 police agreements with drug dealers, 169–170 preventive interventions, 19, 137, 209, 211, 229, 232 school-based, 8, 19, 137, 209, 211– 213, 219–221, 224–225, 228–229, 230, 232, 233, 234 drug testing, 33, 202–203 retail drug market, 166 social organization, 162–165, 175, 274 risk factors, 38, 47, 49, 51, 99, 167, 168, 169, 194 treatment, 248, 357–372 Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime, 261, 349, 351, 368, 369– 372, 373 Complementarities, 20–21 gateway hypothesis, 9, 23, 208, 217, 218 national satellite accounts, 118 treatment and enforcement, 9–10, 15, 18, 20 Confidentiality and privacy, 8, 29, 63, 82, 100, 103–104, 169, 278 drug testing, 198

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Consumption data, 3, 6, 7, 15, 24, 29, 31, 53– 57, 60–61, 78, 152, 162, 276 see also Frequency of use adolescents, 79, 80, 192, 308 alcohol, 60, 61, 78, 79 cocaine, 43, 46, 60–61, 78, 147, 152, 222, 285–288 dose-response relationship, 58–59 incarceration of drug dealers and, 170, 176 organization structure of data collection, 124, 125, 129 price of drugs and, 3–4, 42–47, 86–87, 105–106, 111, 146, 160, 167 surveys, 45, 55–56, 78, 86–87 tobacco, 78, 79 Controlled Substances Act, 17, 271 Controlling Cocaine: Supply Versus Demand Programs, 319 Coroners, see Medical examiners and coroners Correctional institutions, see Incarceration Cost and cost-benefit factors, 105, 153(n.7), 271, 310, 319–320, 350 see also Effect sizes; Price factors agency coordination, 131 complementarities, 20 dose-response relationship, 59 drug control expenditures, 1, 3, 271, 272 drug courts, 375 drug dealers’ viewpoint, 142–143, 152, 165–166, 176 drug testing, 200 enforcement, 1, 3, 20, 171, 172, 188, 194, 244, 271, 274, 276, 364 impulse-response analysis, 145 national satellite accounts, 118 organization structure of data collection, 124 preventive interventions, 208, 221, 276 effect sizes, 215–216, 224–225, 230, 233–234 probation, 365 research, general, 6, 7, 16, 26–27 sanctions for drug use, 5, 33, 188, 194, 195 treatment programs, 9, 20, 153, 241, 242, 243, 244, 250, 252, 253, 255, 261, 276, 364, 365 effect sizes, 243, 250–256 health insurance, 257–258 Counseling mentoring, 211, 224, 225 preventive interventions, 209–211, 220, 224, 225, 230, 232 treatment of abusers, 247–248, 254, 263, 300, 363, 376 Covington, Jeanette, 349–381 Crime associated with drug use, 1, 42–43, 49–50, 54, 59, 60, 63–64, 148, 178, 300, 316, 356 adolescents, 47, 190 alcohol abuse and, 64, 301 drug dealer’s perspective, 143, 165–166, 170 drug dealers, police agreements with, 169–170 funded research, 55, 56 gangs, 91, 148, 165, 166, 168 national satellite accounts, 117 Criminal justice system, 1, 26, 53, 78, 143, 315–317 see also Arrests; Incarceration; Police; Probation and parole; Sentences, incarceration adolescents in, 47, 84, 189–190, 317 database linkages, 91 drug courts, 261–262, 349, 351, 354–355, 368, 372–377 drug use effects vs effects of illegality of use, 63–64 expenditures, 6, 271 funded data sources, 55, 296–302 historical processing facts, 3, 17–18 recidivism, 261, 262, 301, 356–358, 359, 361, 365–367, 372, 375, 377 treatment programs and, 9–10, 15, 18, 20, 261–262, 349–378 Crop eradication, 3, 19, 137 expenditures on research, 6, 27 systems research, 5, 156, 157, 159 Crop substitution, 19, 141, 156 Current Population Survey, 169 D D.A.R.E., 9, 210, 224, 225, 234 Database access, 8, 31, 82, 83–84 confidentiality, 8, 29, 63, 82, 100, 103– 104, 169, 278 drug testing, 198

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us organizational structure of data collection, 129, 278 Database linkage, xiii, 7, 86, 88, 89–93 DATOS, see Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Survey DAWN, see Drug Abuse Warning Network Demand, see Consumption data Demand-reduction interventions, 5, 12, 15, 19–20, 25, 319 see also Deterrence; Preventive interventions; Sanctions; Treatment defined, 187 Demographic factors, 53, 78, 87–88, 309 see also Educational attainment; Gender factors; Geographic factors; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status; Urban areas marital status, 364 military personnel, 19, 199–200, 308 Department of Defense Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), 16, 76(n.1), 145, 148–149, 319, 320 military personnel, 19, 199–200, 308 Department of Education, 211 National Center for Education Statistics, 83–84, 124, 133 Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 203 Department of Health and Human Services, 94(n.9), 131, 132–133 see also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration Food and Drug Administration, 256 National Center for Health Statistics, 133, 134, 308 Services Research Outcome Study, 305– 306, 313 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 132, 196 Department of Justice, 132, 261, 278 see also Bureau of Justice Statistics; Office of National Drug Control Policy Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 274, 316, 317 Department of Labor, 6, 309 see also Bureau of Labor Statistics Department of State, 132, 313 Deterrence, 5, 161, 188, 190, 191–194 see also Drug-testing programs; Incarceration; Price factors; Sanctions adaptive behavior and, 5, 157–158, 159, 172–174 noncriminal sanctions, 19, 187–188 systems research, 5, 157, 158, 159 Detroit, Michigan, 286, 287, 291, 292 The Development of Medications for the Treatment of Opiate and Cocaine Addictions, 22 Diseases and disorders, 53–54, 55, 59, 62, 63, 243, 310–311 see also Addiction; Mortality; Treatment programs AIDS, 55, 59, 103–104, 105, 298, 303, 376 CDC surveillance, general, 105 marijuana, medical uses, 22 tuberculosis, prisoners, 298 Dispelling the Myths About Addiction, 22, 38 District of Columbia, 328 arrest rates, 189 drug dealers’ employment opportunities, 167–168 price data, 106, 108, 110, 113, 164, 165 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 Dopamine, 39 Dose-response relationships, 41, 57–60, 62, 230 see also Addiction Driver’s licenses, loss of, 33, 195, 197 Dropouts, 7–8, 87, 94(n.10) Drug abuse monitoring programs, see Monitoring systems Drug Abuse Reporting Program, 249 Drug Abuse Resistance Education, see D.A.R.E. Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Survey (DATOS), 55–56, 249 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 7–8, 24, 77–78, 80–81, 85–86, 311 linkage, 90, 92–93 sampling, 7, 88, 89, 90

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, 91, 93, 304 Drug Control, Research Data and Evaluation Advisory Committee, 131–132 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 313 arrestees, 24, 84 organization structure of data collection, 124, 134 price data, 4, 106–107 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 Drug-Free Schools and Communities, 211 Drug Services Research Survey, 305–306 Drug-testing programs, 19, 27, 33, 80, 202– 203 adolescents, 33, 202–203, 233 confidentiality of results, 198 employee, 19, 27, 33, 197–199, 200–201 home kits, 233 military personnel, 19, 199–200 parolees/probationers, 297, 300, 359, 361, 362, 366, 373 school-based, 33, 202–203 survey response problems, 100 treatment programs and, 248–249, 263, 297, 300, 359, 361, 362, 366 Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program, 84, 85, 89, 90, 101, 104–105, 336, 338 see also Arrestee Drug Abuse Warning Program Drug Use in America: Problem in Perspective, 272 E Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States, 310 Economic factors, 31, 37–38, 310 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Crime associated with drug use; Employment; Funding; Price factors; Retail drug markets globalization, 152 health insurance, 257–258 impulse-response analysis, 144–146 national satellite accounts, 31, 117–119 organizational structure of data collection, 129–130, 134 replacement of incarcerated drug dealers, 174–175 supply-reduction policy, 142–143, 152 taxation, 153(n.6) Educational attainment drug dealers, 167, 168 drug treatment admissions, 304 prison inmates, 92, 298 school-based program participants, 211– 212 Educational interventions. 19, 25, 34, 208, 213–214, 223–224, 226, 232, 279 see also School-based data and approaches employment training, 19, 161–162, 167–169 mass media, 152–153, 209, 226, 230, 232 Effect sizes preventive interventions, 215–216, 224– 225, 230, 233–234 treatment, 243, 250–256 Emergency room treatment, 7, 24, 77–78, 80–81, 85–86, 88, 89 see also Drug Abuse Warning Network An Empirical Examination of Counterdrug Interdiction Program Effectiveness, 319 Employment see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Labor adolescents, 309 drug testing, 19, 27, 33, 197–199, 200–201 opportunities for users/dealers, 19, 161– 162, 167–169 parolees/probationers, 351, 359, 363, 364 sanctions for employees using drugs, 19, 33, 187, 189, 197–201 surveys, inaccurate responses, 98–99 Enforcement, xi, 3, 6, 7, 15, 26, 33, 54, 137– 138, 141, 188–195, 274–275, 301, 315–317 see also Arrests; Criminal justice system; Demand-reduction interventions; Drug Enforcement Administration; Incarceration; Police; Probation and parole; Sentences, incarceration; Supply reduction interventions; Zero tolerance policies

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us adaptive response to, 5, 157–158, 159, 172–174 complementarities, 9–10, 15, 18, 20 cost and cost-effectiveness, 1, 3, 20, 171, 172, 188, 194, 244, 271, 274, 276, 364 database linkages, 91 fairness of, 140, 178–181 historical perspectives, 3, 17–19, 26, 147, 151, 153 impulse-response analysis, 144–156 international interdiction, 15, 25, 32, 137 historical perspectives, 147, 151, 153 impulse-response analysis, 144–145, 147, 149 Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), 16, 76(n.1), 145, 148–149, 319, 320 price of drugs, 105–106, 145, 147, 149, 151, 155, 156 systems research, 157 organization of data collection, 10, 26, 134, 276–277 public opinion of, 139–140 retail markets and, 169–179 drug dealers’ risk perception, 142– 143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164 price of drugs and, 4, 105–106, 107– 112, 145–156, 160, 166, 170, 171, 178 replacement of incarcerated dealers, 145, 171, 172, 174–177 risk factors, 48, 143 systems research, 156–160 treatment programs, general, 9–10, 15, 18, 20–21, 244 Epidemics, 1, 21, 52, 62, 77, 89, 101–105, 229, 273 Ethical issues addiction research, 40(n.3) clinical trials, 9–10, 246, 252–253, 258, 263–264 confidentiality and privacy, 8, 29, 63, 82, 100, 103–104, 169, 198, 278 fairness, 148, 178–181, 259, 356–357, 366– 367 Expertise, xiii, 6–7, 8, 83, 112, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 140, 192, 241, 253, 263, 277 F Family factors, 38, 42, 47, 50–51, 53, 56, 187, 194, 309, 310 alcoholism, 49 child abuse and neglect, 196 drug-testing, home kits, 233 maternal drug abuse, 310 domestic violence, 56, 59, 196 genetic, 40(n.2), 42, 47, 48–49, 50, 51–52, 233, 243 preventive interventions, 209–210, 212, 229, 232, 233 prison inmates, 92, 298 treatment, 242, 248, 370, 373 welfare, loss of, 33, 196, 197 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 301, 341 Federal Justice Statistics Program, 299 Federal Reports Act, 130 Food and Drug Administration, 256 Food Stamps, 196 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Frequency of drug use, 3, 42, 53 see also Addiction; Deterrence; Prevalence cocaine, 46, 61–62, 146, 192, 201 marijuana, 8, 192–193, 201 price factors, 45, 46, 146, 160 research funding, 55 sanctions and, 192 surveys, 78, 79, 81, 82 Funding agency coordination, 131 behavioral effects research, general, 55 caseload analysis research, 6, 27 crime associated with drug abuse, research, 55, 56 criminal justice system, 55, 296–302 crop substitution, 19, 141, 156 data collection and research, general, 2, 6–7, 10, 15, 26–27, 36, 54, 55–56, 277, 278–279 drug control expenditures, general, 1, 3, 271, 272 economic data, organizational factors, 129–130 enforcement, 2, 3, 6, 26, 274, 276 interagency transfer of funds, 134

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us organization of data collection, 129–130, 131, 134, 276, 277, 278 preventive interventions, 9, 152–153, 276 treatment, 35, 93, 152, 153, 249, 276 G Gangs, 91, 148, 165, 166, 168 Gateway hypothesis, 9, 23, 34, 208, 217, 218, 221, 233–234 Gender factors maternal drug abuse, 310 preventive interventions, 220 survey data, 80, 84 treatment, 356, 370 welfare, loss of, 196 General Accounting Office, 84, 91, 244 Genetic factors, 40(n.2), 42, 47, 48–49, 50, 51–52, 233, 243 Geographic factors see also Community factors; International perspectives; Local factors; National surveys; State government; State-level factors, other; Urban areas distribution of drug use, 78, 81, 85, 88 price of drugs, 44, 45, 106, 147, 283–284 retail market fragmentation, 164, 165, 166, 171 sampling, 87–88, 90 social organization of retail drug markets, 162–165 Geographic substitution, 5, 32, 157, 158–160 defined, 5, 157 national satellite accounts, 118 Good Behavior Game, 228 H Hallucinogens, 41, 78, 271, 303 survey response problems, 94 Harrison Narcotics Act, 17, 271 Health factors, see Diseases and disorders; Medical examiners and coroners; Mortality Health insurance, 257–258 Heroin, 78, 221, 303 see also Opiates, general historical perspectives, 17, 19, 23, 271 inmate reports of previous use, 242 neurological factors, 40, 41 organization of data collection, 125 price factors, 43, 46, 106, 110, 142, 149, 150, 151, 154, 161 systems research, 158 treatment of users, 242–243, 254, 305 methadone maintenance, 242–243, 247, 253–254 universal prevention programs, 218–219 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 308 Hispanics, 179, 180 Historical perspectives, 11, 17–20, 25, 192, 234, 271–273, 274, 278–279 adolescents, 189–190, 302, 329, 330–332, 334–344 cocaine consumption, 61, 147, 285–288 drug control expenditures, 1, 3, 271, 272 heroin use, 17, 19, 23, 271 incarceration, 3, 17, 260, 297, 298 international interdiction, 147, 151, 153 price of drugs, trends, 106, 147, 149–154, 285–292 treatment, 11, 17–18, 19, 241, 245, 249, 260, 261, 274 Homeless persons, 7–8, 87, 111 Hospitalization, 7–8, 133 see also Emergency room treatment organization of data collection, 125 Housing Department of Housing and Urban Development, 132, 196 drug dealer eviction, 170, 174 homeless persons, 7–8, 87, 111 public housing, loss of, 33, 196, 197 I Impulse-response analysis, 4–5, 144–156 Incarceration, 7–8, 84, 138, 170, 171, 189, 274, 296–301 see also Arrests; Sentences, incarceration alcohol abuse, inmate surveys, 92, 298, 299, 300 clinical trials of inmates and former inmates, 10, 35, 242, 258, 259–260, 262, 351–360 database linkage, 91–92 deterrence, 188, 194 drug testing, 297

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us educational attainment of inmates, 92, 298 family factors, 92, 298 historical perspectives, 3, 17, 260, 297, 298 prices of drugs and rates of, 155 racial/ethnic disparities, 180–181 replacement of incarcerated dealers, 145, 171, 172, 174–177 surveys, 24, 92, 296–301, 313, 315–317 Census of Jails, 133, 298 Census of State and Federal Prisons, 298 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities, 92, 298 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 92, 298–299, 316 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 300 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 92, 298, 317 treatment programs, 10, 20, 92, 241, 242, 250, 258, 259–260, 263, 297, 298, 300, 301, 313, 316, 349–381 Inhalants, 41, 78, 79, 303 survey response problems, 94 Initiation of drug use, 3, 5, 8, 21, 38, 40, 46, 49, 52, 59, 62, 142, 303 preventive interventions, 217, 219–220, 222, 226, 233–234, 276 price factors, 46, 142, 160 sanctions and, 190, 191, 195, 197 surveys, 82, 86, 303 Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), 16, 76(n.1), 145, 148–149, 319, 320 Institute for Social Research, 79 Insurance, see Health insurance International perspectives see also Department of Defense complementarities, 20 crop eradication, 3, 5, 6, 19, 27, 137, 156, 157, 159 crop substitution, 19, 141, 156 Department of State, 132, 313 globalization, 152 interdiction, 15, 25, 32, 137 crop eradication, 3, 5, 6, 19, 27, 137, 156, 157, 159 historical perspectives, 147, 151, 153 impulse-response analysis, 144–145, 147, 149 Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA), 16, 76(n.1), 145, 148–149, 319, 320 price of drugs, 105–106, 145, 147, 149, 151, 155, 156 systems research, 157 national satellite accounts, 118, 119 sources of drugs, by country, 313 transportation of drugs, 3, 5, 32, 152, 157, 176 Internet epidemiologic data, 102–103 inmate reports of previous drug use, 242 National Youth Anti-Drug Campaign, 226 treatment protocols, 241 Inter-university consortium for Political and Social Research, 82 J Jail, see Incarceration Juvenile Court Statistics, 316 Juveniles Taken Into Custody, 317 K Key-Crest program, 357, 358–359 L Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 315 Legislation, 188–189, 271 Americans with Disabilities Act, 198 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, 195–196 committee recommendations, 31 Controlled Substances Act, 17, 271 employee drug testing, 198–199 Federal Reports Act, 130 Harrison Narcotics Act, 17, 271 Paperwork Reduction Act, 130–131 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 196 Life-skills training, 210, 224, 226–227, 230

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Local factors see also Community factors; Schol-based data and approaches; Urban areas arrest rates, 170 Census of Jails, 133, 298 complementarities, 20–21 enforcement data, 178, 274, 316 epidemics, 102, 104–105 prison inmates, 92 risk factors, 38, 47, 49, 51, 99, 167, 168, 169, 194 survey data linkage, 91 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 92, 298– 299, 316 M Marijuana, 8, 17, 192–194, 201, 271 adolescents, use by, 199 frequency of drug use, 8, 192–193, 201 hard drug use and, 9, 23, 217, 218, 221, 234 legalization/decriminalization, 23, 192– 193 medical uses, 22 neurological factors, 39, 41 organization of data collection, 125 prevention programs, 217, 218–219, 221, 233–234 price factors, 142, 154 survey response problems, 94, 99, 100 treatment of users, 253 Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base, 22 Marital status, 364 Mass media, 152–153, 209, 226, 230, 232 Medical examiners and coroners, 78, 80, 81, 86, 125 Mentoring, 211, 224, 225 Meta-analytic studies, 35, 213, 216, 219, 223, 254, 255, 264, 265 Methadone, 349 cocaine user treatment, 248–249 heroin user treatment, 242–243, 247, 253– 254 Methodology, see Research methodology Metropolitan areas, see Urban areas; specific cities Miami, Florida, 108–109, 285, 286, 287 Military personnel, 19, 199–200, 308 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity Monitoring systems, 2, 7–8, 29–31, 77–135, 273, 275–276 see also Consumption data; National surveys; Purity and potency of drugs; Surveillance systems; Surveys committee methodology, 24, 27–28 expenditures, 6, 27 price factors, 7, 30, 31, 75, 77, 276; see also Drug Enforcement Administration standards, 107, 116–117 Monitoring the Future (MTF), 7–8, 29, 30, 45, 54, 55, 62, 77, 80–84, 101, 278, 303, 308, 318 epidemics, 102 response problems, 8, 30, 93–100, 321– 326, 329–330, 332–335, 338–344 sampling, other, 7, 80, 87–88, 308 sanctions, efficacy, 192, 193 Morbidity and Morality Weekly Reports, 103 Mortality, 1, 59, 90, 103, 306, 310 see also Drug Abuse Warning Network medical examiners and coroners, 78, 80, 81, 86, 125 suicide, 85, 303 MTF, see Monitoring the Future N National Center for Education Statistics, 83–84, 124, 133 National Center for Health Statistics, 133, 134, 308 National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, 192, 272, 274, 278 National Corrections Reporting Program, 315 National Crime Victim Survey, 301 National Development and Research Institutes, 162–163 National Drug Accounts (proposed), 31, 117–119 National Drug Addiction Treatment Clinical Trials Network, 264 National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Unit Survey, 249 National Drug Control Strategy, 24, 53, 76(n.1), 272–273, 274, 275 employment sanctions, 197–198

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us National Drug Intelligence Center, 91 National Health Interview Survey, 133 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 301 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (NHSDA), 7–8, 24, 30, 54, 55–56, 77, 78–79, 80–81, 86(n.3), 101, 169, 308 drug testing, 200–201 linkage with other databases, 90, 91–92 marijuana decriminalization and use, 192–193 periodicity, 131, 308 price of drugs, 111 racial/ethnic disparities, 179–180 response problems, 93–100, 321–330, 332, 335–340, 344 sampling, 7, 80, 87–88, 90, 111, 308 National Incident Based Reporting System, 301 National Income and Product Accounts, 119 National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 5, 6, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 76(n.1), 124, 134, 195, 197, 274, 277, 278 see also Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program National Institute of Mental Health, 309 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 310 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 5, 6, 309, 310 see also Monitoring the Future committee recommendations, 8, 25, 30, 31, 33, 35 database access, 83–84 drug testing, 201, 203 epidemic surveillance, 102 funding, 7, 29, 273–274 organization structure of data collection, 6, 124, 134, 273–274, 277 sanctions, effectiveness, 195, 197 treatment evaluation, 241, 261, 264, 305 National Institutes of Health, 134, 241, 273 National Judicial Reporting Program, 299 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 98, 169, 309, 337 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 310 National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee, 313 National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System, 102–103 National Prisoner Statistics program, 297– 298 National Science Foundation, 6–7, 29, 30, 31, 32, 36, 277, 278 National Survey of Adults on Probation, 299 National surveys, 24, 28, 55–56, 77–119, 133, 296–318 see also Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program; Drug Abuse Warning Network; Monitoring the Future; National Household Survey of Drug Abuse Census of Jails, 133, 298 Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 312 Current Population Survey, 169 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Survey National Crime Victim Survey, 301 National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Unit Survey, 249 National Health Interview Survey, 133 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 98, 169, 309, 337 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 310 National Survey of Adults on Probation, 299 National Youth Survey, 309 Services Research Outcome Study, 305– 306, 313 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities, 92, 298 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 92, 298– 299, 316 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 300 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 92, 298, 317 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 55– 56, 93, 243(n.1), 249, 250, 304–305, 312 Uniform Facility Data Set, 93, 243, 304, 305, 311

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us National Youth Anti-Drug Campaign, 209, 226 National Youth Survey, 309 The Netherlands, 119 Neuroscience of addiction, 37, 38–42, 51, 243–244, 274 cocaine, 39, 40, 41 dose-response relationships, 41, 57–60, 62, 230 New York City, 108–109, 162–164, 167–168, 174, 287, 288(n.2), 291, 292 NHSDA, see National Household Survey of Drug Abuse O Oakland, California, 174 Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 203 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 274, 316, 317 Office of Management and Budget, 130–131 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), 1, 5, 76(n.1), 274, 296, 319 committee charge, 2, 16, 319 committee recommendations, 8, 29, 30, 31, 32 database access, 83–84 expenditures, 6, 27 historical perspectives, 18 mass media campaigns, 209, 226 National Drug Control Strategy, 53, 76(n.1), 197–198, 272–273, 274, 275 organization of data collection, 11, 124, 130, 131–132, 135 Performance Measures of Effectiveness, 53, 275 Pulse Check, 89, 90, 102, 104–105, 314 price of drugs, 149, 151, 154(n.10) surveillance, 105 treatment evaluations, 241, 305–306 Opiates, general see also Heroin addictive process, 39, 40, 41 historical perspectives, 247, 271 incarceration for possession, 189 monitoring abuse, 100, 304 sanctions, 189, 193–194 treatment of abusers, 242, 243(n.1), 246, 247, 254, 304 Organizational structure of drug markets, 162–165 Organizational structure of research, 4, 124–135, 273–274, 276–279 see also Database access; Funding agency coordination, 130–132 linkage of databases, xiii, 7, 86, 88, 89–93 clinical trials, 10 committee charge, 2, 16 committee recommendations, 10–11, 27, 31, 32, 36, 178 enforcement, 10, 26, 134, 276–277 federal statistical agency programs, general, 2, 6, 10–11, 24, 27, 29 national satellite accounts, 31, 117–119 price of drugs, 129, 134 P Paperwork Reduction Act, 130–131 Paraphernalia, 189, 300 Parental factors, see Family factors Parole, see Probation and parole Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research, 22, 38 Peer influences, 38, 42, 50, 51, 52, 187, 194, 309 preventive interventions, 220, 223–224, 226, 227, 230, 231 Peer review of research committee study at hand, xii–xiv, 76(n.1) organizational structure of data collection, 127 Pepper, John, 321–348 Performance Measures of Effectiveness, 53, 275 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 196 Peru, 158, 159 Phoenix, Arizona, 109 Police, 1, 143, 164, 169–174, 314 see also Arrests alcohol abuse, crackdowns, 172–173 dealers, agreements with, 169–170 funded research, 55 impulse-response analysis, 144, 172–173 price factors, 106, 108, 110, 148, 164

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 school-based programs, 212, 233 Prevalence data, 3, 7, 52–53, 229, 273, 276, 308–309 see also Deterrence; Frequency of drug use cocaine, 60–61, 180, 199–200, 318 cognitive and behavioral interventions, 210, 218, 220, 224, 225, 226, 232, 234 drug testing, 199–200 drug treatment admissions, 304 epidemics, 1, 21, 52, 62, 77, 89, 101–105, 229, 273 inmates, prior drug sue, 299, 300 life-skills training, 210, 224, 226 marijuana use, 192–193, 199–200, 318 organization structure of data collection, 124 probationers, past, 299 racial/ethnic disparities, 180 sanctions and, 192 survey response problems, 8, 30, 82, 93– 100, 298, 302, 321–348, 377 adolescents, 8, 30, 82, 93–100, 321– 326, 329–344 alcohol use, 94(n.9), 100 cocaine use, 94, 99 drug testing and, 100 employees, 98–99 marijuana use, 94, 99, 100 Monitoring the Future, 8, 30, 93–100, 321–326, 329–330, 332–335, 338–344 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 93–100, 321–330, 332, 335– 340, 344 Preventing Drug Abuse: What Do We Know? 22 Preventive interventions, xi, 22, 25, 63, 160, 208–240 see also Drug-testing programs; Educational interventions; Initiation of drug use; Sanctions cognitive and behavioral interventions, 210, 218, 220, 224, 225, 226, 232, 234 combinations of programs, 9 committee recommendations, 7, 8–9, 25, 34, 227, 234 cost factors, 208, 221, 276 effect sizes, 215–216, 224–225, 230, 233–234 counseling, 209–211, 220, 224, 225, 230, 232 family involvement, 209–210, 212, 229, 232, 233 funding, 9, 152–153, 276 historical perspectives, 19, 274 mass media, 152–153, 209 marijuana use, 217, 218–219, 221, 233– 234 mentoring, 211, 224, 225 neuroscience and, 39 recreational, 211 sanctions and, 190–195 see also Deterrence school-based, 8, 19, 137, 209, 211–213, 219–221, 224–225, 228–229, 230, 232, 233, 234 drug testing, 33, 202–203 universal prevention, general, 217–221; see also “mass media” supra Price factors, 3–4, 5–6, 7, 24, 30, 31, 32, 37, 42–47, 86–87, 105–117, 350 see also Price factors addiction, 45–46, 141–142 alcohol, 142 arrest data, 111–112, 165 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 116, 134 cocaine, 43, 46, 106, 108–109, 110, 112– 113, 114, 116, 117, 142, 160, 161, 164–165, 283–295, 320 impulse response analysis, 146, 147, 149–151, 153(n.6), 154, 155 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 consumption data and, 3–4, 42–47, 86–87, 105–106, 111, 146, 160, 167 drug dealer viewpoint, 143 Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 4, 106–107 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 enforcement efforts and, 4, 105–106, 107– 112, 145–156, 160, 166, 170, 171, 178

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us frequency of drug use, 45, 46, 146, 160 heroin, 43, 46, 106, 110, 142, 149, 150, 151, 154, 161 historical perspectives, 106, 147, 149– 154, 285–292 impulse-response analysis, 4–5, 145, 146–156 incarceration rates and, 155 initiation of drug use and, 46, 142, 160 international interdiction and, 105–106, 145, 147, 149, 151, 155, 156 marijuana, 142, 154 monitoring systems, general, 7, 30, 31, 75, 77, 276; see also “Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)” supra standards, 107, 116–117 national satellite accounts, 118 Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), 149, 151, 154(n.10) police, 106, 108, 110, 148, 164; see also System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence organizational structure of data collection, 129, 134 research methodology, general, 105–117, 145–146, 283–295 sampling, surveys, 4, 32, 139, 143, 145– 156, 160, 162, 164–167, 169 sanctions, general, 44–45 enforcement efforts, 4, 105–106, 107– 112, 145–156, 160, 166, 170, 171, 178 incarceration rates, 155 supply-reduction policy, 4, 32, 139, 143, 145–156, 160, 162, 164–167, 169 time factors, 114–116, 117, 145, 146, 147, 284 tobacco, 45(n.7), 142 urban areas, 44, 45, 106, 108–109, 113– 116, 164–166 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 Prison, see Incarceration; Sentences, incarceration Privacy, see Confidentiality and privacy Private sector drug testing, 19, 27, 33, 197–199, 200–201 employee sanctions for drug use, 19, 33, 187, 189, 197–201 prisoners, clinical trials, 10 professional athletes, 202(n.4) Probation and parole, 297, 299, 300 drug testing during, 297, 300, 359, 361, 362, 366, 373 employment during, 351, 359, 363, 364 treatment during, 242, 256, 259, 260–261, 262–263, 299, 349, 350–351, 353, 354–358, 361, 362, 364–373, 374– 376, 378 Project PATHE, 211 Project STAR, 209 Psychological factors, 38, 42, 48, 49–50, 55, 56 behavioral effects of drug use, 40, 51, 55, 56, 63 cognitive and behavioral interventions prevention, 210, 218, 220, 224, 225, 226, 232, 234 treatment, 242, 243, 247, 248, 254 dose-response relationship, 58 Public assistance, see Welfare Public housing, loss of, 33 Public opinion, 3, 15, 57, 139–140, 187–188, 190–191 complementarities, 20 preventive interventions, 208 stigmatization, 8, 191, 197, 255, 322, 339– 346 Pulse Check, 89, 90, 102, 104–105, 314 Purity and potency, 40, 59, 63, 151, 160, 161, 163, 164, 169, 289, 293, 296, 321 monitoring, 77, 86–87, 106, 108, 110–113 (passim), 116 R Race/ethnicity, 49, 163, 197, 308 African Americans, 179–181, 197, 304 arrest rates, 51, 52, 162–164, 177, 179–180 drug treatment admissions, 304 fairness of enforcement, 179–181 incarcerated persons, 297–298, 363 welfare, loss of, 196 RAND, 16, 118, 156, 244, 319–320 Recidivism, 261, 262, 301, 356–358, 361, 365– 367, 372, 375, 377 Recreational interventions, 211

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us Research methodology, 37, 296–318 see also Clinical trials; Cost and cst-effectiveness factors; Database access; Organizational structure of research; Sampling; Statistical analyses; Surveys confidentiality and privacy, 8, 29, 63, 82, 100, 103–104, 169, 278 consumption data, 86 determinants and consequences of drug use, 37–64 expertise, xiii, 6–7, 8, 83, 112, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 140, 192, 241, 253, 263, 277 impulse-response analysis, 4–5, 144–156 incarcerated persons, 296–302 meta-analysis, 35, 213, 216, 219, 223, 254, 255, 264, 265 peer review, xii–xiv, 76(n.1), 127 preventive interventions, evaluation, 213–215, 221, 226, 231, 234 price of drugs, 105–117, 145–146, 283–295 systems research, 4, 5, 7, 77, 156–160, 351 treatment interventions, evaluation, 244, 262–265, 351–378; see also Clinical trials Retail drug markets, 4, 44, 108–109, 274 see also Price factors beepers, 163–164, 173, 174 drug dealer perception of risk, 142–143 enforcement, 169–179 drug dealers’ risk perception, 142– 143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164 price of drugs and, 4, 105–106, 107– 112, 145–156, 160, 166, 170, 171, 178 replacement of incarcerated dealers, 145, 171, 172, 174–177 purity and potency of drugs, 40, 59, 63, 151, 160, 161, 163, 164, 169, 289, 293, 296, 321 monitoring, 77, 86–87, 106, 108, 110– 113 (passim), 116 supply-reduction policy, 139, 142–143, 152, 160–179 Risk factors, 30, 38–52, 62–63, 78, 79, 80–81, 82, 83 see also Demographic factors; Family factors; Genetic factors; Neuroscience of addiction; Peer influences cocaine use, 9, 23, 34, 39 community-related, 38, 47, 49, 51, 99, 167, 168, 169, 194 familial, 38, 42, 47, 310 genetic, 40(n.2), 42, 47, 48–49, 50, 51–52, 233, 243 individual and social, 47–52 neurological, 37, 38–42, 52 preventive interventions, 219–221, 228, 233 subpopulations at highest risk, 7–8, 19, 220–221, 228, 233 Risk perception, 50, 62, 78, 79, 82 addicts, 142 educational interventions, 208, 223 gateway hypothesis, 218 sanctions and, 191 drug dealers, 142–143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164, 165–166, 171 S Sampling, 80, 87–93, 301, 303 adolescents, 95–100, 302, 321–344 Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program, 7, 88, 89, 90, 104–105, 111, 309 clinical trials, 249, 250, 251, 252 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 7, 88, 89, 90 event surveys, 7, 24, 80, 85, 88–89, 304 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 55–56, 93, 243(n.1), 249, 250, 304– 305, 312 inaccurate responses/nonresponse, 8, 30, 82, 93–100, 298, 302, 321–348, 377 adolescents, 8, 30, 82, 93–100, 321– 326, 329–344 alcohol use, 94(n.9), 100 cocaine use, 94, 99 drug testing and, 100 employees, 98–99 marijuana use, 94, 99, 100 Monitoring the Future, 8, 30, 93–100, 321–326, 329–330, 332–335, 338–344 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 93–100, 321–330, 332, 335– 340, 344 tobacco use, 94(n.10), 100 incarcerated persons/parolees, 298, 299, 367, 368

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us labor supply, 167 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 7, 80, 87–88, 90, 111, 308 population probability, 7, 80, 87–88 preventive intervention evaluations, 214 price of drugs, 110, 111, 112, 113, 153(n.7), 284–288 probationers, 299 treatment evaluations, 249, 250, 251, 252, 261, 305–306 Sanctions, 25, 33, 38, 137, 140, 187–207 see also Deterrence; Incarceration; Sentences, incarceration adolescents, 189–190 cost and cost-effectiveness, 5, 33, 188, 194, 195, 188, 194 driver’s licenses, loss of, 33, 195, 197 employees using drugs, 19, 33, 187, 189, 197–201 housing, dug dealer eviction, 170, 174 public housing, loss of, 33, 196, 197 initiation of drug use and, 190, 191, 195, 197 noncriminal, 19, 33, 137, 187–188, 189, 195–203 price and, 44–45 risk perception, 191 drug dealers, 142–143, 151, 152, 155, 163–164, 165–166, 171 social factors, general, 38, 187–188, 190– 191, 193–197 voting rights, loss of, 197 welfare benefits, loss of, 33, 196, 197 San Diego, California, 290, 291 Satellite accounts, 31, 117–119 School-based data and approaches, 302 alcohol abuse, 201 dropouts, 7–8, 87, 94(n.10) family preventive interventions, 209 organization of data collection, 125 prevention programs, 8, 19, 137, 209, 211–213, 219–221, 224–225, 228– 229, 230, 232, 233, 234 drug testing, 33, 202–203 sanctions, 201–203, 232 surveys, 79, 83–84, 97–98, 329; see also Monitoring the Future tobacco use, 201 zero tolerance policies, 201–202, 212 School Development Program, 228, 229 Seattle Social Development Project, 212 Sensitization model, 39 Sentences, incarceration, 92, 138, 170, 189, 259, 297–298 see also Probation and parole length, 177, 180, 189, 259, 296, 299, 370, 375 Services Research Outcome Study, 305–306, 313 Simulation of Adaptive Response model, 156 SMART program, 174 Smoking, see Marijuana; Tobacco use Social factors, 1, 17, 23, 33, 140–141, 172, 226–227 see also Community factors; Family factors; Peer influences; Pubic opinion addiction, 49, 52, 59 dose-response relationship, 59 life-skills training, 210, 224, 226–227, 230 retail drug market, 162–165, 175, 274 risk factors, general, 37, 47–52, 53, 56, 59, 62, 218, 334–335, 363 sanctions, 38, 187–188, 190–191, 193–197 stigmatization, 8, 191, 197, 255, 322, 339– 346 Socioeconomic status, 113, 152, 309, 316, 363, 377 see also Educational attainment employment opportunities for users/ dealers, 19, 161–162, 167–169 homeless persons, 7–8, 87, 111 Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, 261, 271–272 Standards see also Ethical issues clinical trials, 25, 258 ethical standards, 9–10, 246, 252–253, 258, 263–264 dose-response analysis, 57 organizational structure of data collection, 125–129, 131, 134, 278 Performance Measures of Effectiveness, 53, 275 price data, 107, 116–117 research general, 25 treatment, 241, 245; see also “clinical trials” supra State Court Processing Statistics, 299 State government, 188–189, 215–216, 271 anti-drug legislation, 17 employee drug testing, 198–199

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us enforcement data, 178, 274 notifiable disease laws, 103, 105 survey data linkage, 91, 92, 93 State-level factors, other adolescents, 302 arrest rates, 170 court data, 299 drug treatment admissions data, 304, 305 epidemic data, 103, 105 incarcerated persons, 92, 297, 298, 300, 301, 312, 314, 315, 317 Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 312 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 300 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 92, 298, 317 marijuana decriminalization and use, 192, 193 national satellite accounts, 118 Statistical analyses effect sizes, preventive interventions, 215–216, 224–225, 230, 233–234 treatment, 243, 250–256 federal agency programs, general, 2, 6, 10–11, 24, 27, 29, 30 see also Organizational structure of data collection preventive intervention evaluations, 214–215, 219, 230 price factors, 43–44, 112–117 satellite accounts, 31, 117–119 Stayin’ Out, 355, 357 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMSHA), 30, 31, 76(n.1), 78, 89, 304 see also Drug Abuse Warning Network; National Household Survey of Drug Abuse database linkage, 91, 93 Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, 91, 93, 304 organization of data collection, 124, 134, 274 Services Research Outcome Study, 305– 306, 313 survey response problems, 100 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 55– 56, 93, 243(n.1), 249, 250, 304–305, 312 Uniform Facility Data Set, 93, 243, 304, 305, 311 Suicide, 85, 303 Supply-reduction interventions, 4, 18–19, 25, 32, 138, 139–186, 319 see also Crop eradication; Crop substitution; Enforcement; Price factors defined, 187 deterrent effects, 5 economics of, general, 142–143, 152 impulse-response analysis, 5, 144–156 price of drugs, 4, 32, 139, 143, 145–156, 160, 162, 164–167, 169 systems research, 5, 156–160 Surveillance systems, 30, 90, 100–105, 279 see also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined, 101 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities, 92, 298 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails, 92, 298– 299, 316 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 300 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities, 92, 298, 317 Surveys, 77–119, 296–318 see also National surveys; Sampling addiction, 81, 82–83, 85 confidentiality and privacy, 8, 29, 63, 82, 100, 103–104, 169, 278 consumption data, 45, 55–56, 78, 86–87 frequency of use, 78, 79, 81, 82 inaccurate responses/nonresponse, 8, 30, 82, 93–100, 298, 302, 321–348, 377 adolescents, 8, 30, 82, 93–100, 321– 326, 329–344 alcohol use, 94(n.9), 100 cocaine use, 94, 99 drug testing and, 100 employees, 98–99 marijuana use, 94, 99, 100 Monitoring the Future, 8, 30, 93–100, 321–326, 329–330, 332–335, 338–344 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, 93–100, 321–330, 332, 335– 340, 344 tobacco, 94(n.10), 100

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us initiation of drug use, 82, 86, 303 linkage of, xiii, 86, 88, 89–93 organizational structure of data collection, 128 racial/ethnic disparities, 179–181 school-based sanctions, 201–202 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108– 114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283– 295, 315 Systems research, 4, 5, 7, 77, 156–160, 351 T Taxation, 153(n.6) TEDS, see Treatment Episodes Data Set Testing, see Drug-testing programs Time factors see also Historical perspectives adaptive response to enforcement, 5 arrestees, 84, 299 buying drugs, time costs, 153(n.7) duration of drug use, 217–218, 318, 370 impulse-response analysis, 144 incarceration, follow-up, 361–362, 369 incarceration, sentence length, 177, 180, 189, 259, 296, 299, 375 organization of data collection, 125 preventive interventions, 217–218, 228, 229–230, 231, 232, 234 price of drugs, 114–116, 117, 145, 146, 147, 284 recidivism, 356–358 surveillance, 100, 101 surveys, 85, 131, 308–317, 325, 338–341 Tobacco use, 8, 23 consumption data, 78, 79 illicit drug use and, 9, 23, 34, 217, 218, 221, 233, 234 neurological factors, 39, 41 price factors, 45(n.7), 142 school-based sanctions, 201 survey response problems, 94(n.10), 100 TOPS, see Treatment Outcome Prospective Study Transportation of drugs, 3, 152, 176 research recommendations, 5, 32, 157 systems research, 5, 157 Treating Drug Problems, 22 Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime, 261, 349, 351, 368, 369–372, 373 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 55–56, 93, 243(n.1), 249, 250, 304–305, 312 Treatment Improvement Protocols, 241 Treatment Outcome Prospective Study (TOPS), 249, 261, 369 Treatment programs, xi, 6, 63, 137, 160, 241–270, 304–306, 311–314 see also Clinical trials; Emergency room treatment; Hospitalization; Residential treatment centers alcohol abuse, 91, 93, 241, 300, 304, 305, 311, 376 arrestees, 261, 359 attitudes of participants, 9, 254, 255 voluntary, 242, 250, 252, 254, 256, 259, 261, 272, 302, 349, 355–362 (passim), 372, 374, 376 case management, 209–211 coercive, 9, 19, 20, 241, 242, 250, 252, 254, 259, 261–262, 263, 368, 349– 378 cognitive and behavioral interventions, 242, 243, 247, 248, 254 committee recommendations, 7, 9–10, 35, 249, 263 community-based, 248, 357–372 Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime, 261, 349, 351, 368, 369– 372 , 373 see also Probation and parole complementarities, 9–10, 15, 18, 20 counseling, 247–248, 254, 263, 300, 363, 376 cost and cost effectiveness, 9, 20, 153, 241, 242, 243, 244, 250, 252, 253, 255, 261, 276, 364, 365 effect sizes, 243, 250–256 health insurance, 257–258 criminal justice system, general, 9–10, 15, 18, 20, 261–262, 349–378 database linkage, 92–93 Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Survey (DATOS), 55–56, 249 Drug and Alcohol Services Information System, 91, 93, 304 drug testing and, 248–249, 263, 297, 300, 359, 361, 362, 366 educational attainment of participants, 304 family involvement, 242, 248, 370, 373

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Informing America’s Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us funding, 35, 93, 152, 153, 249, 276 gender factors, 356, 370 heroin users, 242–243, 254, 305 methadone maintenance, 242–243, 247, 253–254 historical perspectives, 11, 17–18, 19, 241, 245, 249, 260, 261, 274 incarcerated persons, 10, 20, 92, 241, 242, 250, 258, 259–260, 263, 297, 298, 300, 301, 313, 316, 349–381 marijuana users, 253 methadone, 349 cocaine user treatment, 248–249 heroin user treatment, 242–243, 247, 253–254 multimodal, 19 National Institute on Drug Abuse, evaluations, 241, 261, 264, 305 neuroscience and, 39 Office of National Drug Control Policy, 241, 305–306 opiate users, general, 242, 243(n.1), 246, 247, 254, 304 organization of data collection, 125 probationers, 242, 256, 259, 260–261, 262–263, 299, 349, 350–351, 353, 354–358, 361, 362, 364–373, 374– 376, 378 racial/ethnic factors, admissions data, 304 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 55– 56, 93, 243(n.1), 249, 250, 304–305 Uniform Facility Data Set, 93, 243, 304, 305 U Under the Influence? Drugs and the American Work Force, 22 Uniform Crime Reports, 301, 341 Uniform Facility Data Set, 93, 243, 304, 305, 311 Urban areas see also specific cities drug dealers, police agreements with, 169–170 drug dealers’ employment opportunities, 167–169 enforcement, 90, 169–179 price of drugs, 44, 45, 106, 108–109, 113– 116, 164–166 System to Retrieve Information from Drug Evidence (STRIDE), 24, 106, 108–114, 117, 147, 153, 161, 164, 283–295, 315 retail drug market, social organization, 162–165 retail drug market fragmentation, 164, 165, 166 surveys, 90, 103; see also Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program Urine testing, see Drug-testing programs V Vaccines analogs for drugs, 233 clinical trials, 245–246 Violence, 1, 63–64, 170, 172, 178 see also Crime associated with drug use child abuse and neglect, 196 database linkages, 91 dealers, police agreements with, 169–170 domestic, 56, 59, 196 inmate surveys, 92, 298, 300 Voting rights, loss of, 197 W Washington, D.C., see District of Columbia Welfare benefits, loss of, 33, 196, 197 White House Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, 261, 271–272 World Wide Web, see Internet Worldwide Survey of Health Related Behaviors, 200, 308 Y Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 302, 310, 318 Z Zero tolerance policies, 8, 188, 199, 200, 233 see also Drug-testing programs school-based sanctions, 201–202, 212