COMMUNITY PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth

Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Editors

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development COMMUNITY PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Editors Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by the Ford Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the William T.Grant Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the U.S. Department of Justice. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2002) Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer A.Gootman, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Community programs to promote youth development/Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth; Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, editors; Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-07275-1 (hardcover) 1. Youth—Services for—United States. 2. Teenagers—Services for—United States. I. Eccles, Jacquelynne S. II. Gootman, Jennifer Appleton. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families. V. Institute of Medicine (U.S.) HV1431 .C657 2002 362.7'083–dc21 2001006226 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Call (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The photographs on the cover and used in this report are the work of young people from throughout the United States involved in a youth photography program. They are the work of Brittany Green, Lim Mom, Terrell Stewart, Shytise Taylor, and Lenna Vorn. The sponsor of the youth photography program was the EZ/EC Foundation Consortium, a partnership of 10 foundations formed to support implementation of the EZ/EC Initiative’s 10-year effort to revitalize urban and rural areas of deep poverty, and to help document its lessons.

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development COMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY-LEVEL PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH JACQUELYNNE ECCLES (Chair), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan CHERYL ALEXANDER, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University BRETT BROWN, Child Trends, Washington, DC SARAH BROWN, National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC KENYON S.CHAN, Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts, Loyola Marymount University ELIZABETH COLSON, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley THOMAS COOK, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University PETER EDELMAN, Georgetown University Law Center CASWELL EVANS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD RONALD FERGUSON, John F.Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University ROBERT GRANGER, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, NY* TERESA LAFROMBOISE, School of Education, Stanford University REED LARSON, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign MILBREY McLAUGHLIN, School of Education, Stanford University ROBERT PLOTNICK, Daniel J.Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington ZENA STEIN, Mailman School of Public Health and the Sergievsky Center, Columbia University ELENA O.NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence JENNIFER A.GOOTMAN, Study Director AMY GAWAD, Research Associate REBEKAH PINTO, Senior Project Assistant *   Member until March 2000.

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES EVAN CHARNEY (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts JAMES A.BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS DEWITT, Children’s Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati MARY JANE ENGLAND, Washington Business Group on Health DONALD COHEN, Department of Child Psychiatry, Yale University MINDY FULLILOVE, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University PATRICIA GREENFIELD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles RUTH T.GROSS, Stanford University KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco NEAL HALFON, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles MAXINE HAYES, Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College HON. CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida VONNIE McLOYD, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison ELIZABETH SPELKE, Department of Brain and Cognitive Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development ELEANOR E.MACCOBY (Liaison from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (Emeritus), Stanford University WILLIAM ROPER (Liaison from the Institute of Medicine), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ELENA O.NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence MICHELE D.KIPKE, Director (through August 2001) MARY GRAHAM, Associate Director of Dissemination and Communications SONJA WOLFE, Administrative Associate (from November 2000) MARY STRIGARI, Administrative Associate (through October 2000)

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development FORUM ON ADOLESCENCE DAVID A.HAMBURG (Chair), Carnegie Corporation of New York (President Emeritus) HUDA AKIL, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHERYL ALEXANDER, Center for Adolescent Health, Johns Hopkins University CLAIRE BRINDIS, Institute for Health Policy Studies, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco GREG DUNCAN, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University JACQUELYNNE ECCLES, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan ABIGAIL ENGLISH, Center for Adolescent Health & the Law, Chapel Hill, North Carolina EUGENE GARCIA, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley HELENE KAPLAN, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, and Flom, New York IRIS F.LITT, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Stanford University JOHN MERROW, The Merrow Report, New York ANNE C.PETERSEN, W.K.Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, Michigan KAREN PITTMAN, International Youth Foundation, Baltimore ANNE PUSEY, Jane Goodall Institute’s Center, University of Minnesota MICHAEL RUTTER, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London STEPHEN A.SMALL, Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison CAMILLE ZUBRINSKY CHARLES, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania BARUCH FISCHHOFF (Liaison from the IOM Council), Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University ELEANOR E.MACCOBY (Liaison from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology Emerita, Stanford University

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development ELENA O.NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence MICHELE D.KIPKE, Director (through August 2001) MARY GRAHAM, Associate Director of Dissemination and Communications

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Acknowledgments The Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth is a project of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). This report is the product of a 2-year project during which a 15-member committee evaluated and integrated the current science of adolescent health and development with research and findings related to program design, implementation, and evaluation of community programs for youth. The funding for this project was provided by a diverse group of public and private sponsors: the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in the U.S. Department of Justice; the Office of Research, Evaluation, and Monitoring in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; the David and Lucile Packard Foundation; the William T.Grant Foundation; and the Ford Foundation. We are also grateful for the support provided to Jacquelynne Eccles, committee chair, by the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation and the Center for Ad-

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development vanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, during the time that she chaired this committee. Beyond the expertise and hard work of the committee, we were fortunate to have many leaders in the field enthusiastically participate in this project. These individuals shared their knowledge and years of experience as researchers, evaluators, practitioners, policy makers, and funders of youth programs and interventions. We are thankful for their time and their intellectual insights. During the planning and early working stages of this project, a small group of well-respected authorities in the area of youth development advised the staff and the committee. We wish to thank these individuals for sharing their wisdom and for their enduring commitment to issues affecting the health, development, and well-being of young people and the institutions that serve them: Peter L.Benson, Search Institute; Michele Cahill, Carnegie Corporation of New York; Jean Grossman, Public/Private Ventures; Richard Murphy, Academy for Educational Development; Karen Pittman, International Youth Foundation/Forum for Youth Investment; and Constancia Warren, Academy for Educational Development. In October 1999 the committee convened a one-day Workshop on Opportunities to Promote Child and Adolescent Development During After-School Hours. Participants included leading researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and funders from the fields of education, research and evaluation, adolescent development, and program design and delivery: Michele Cahill, Carnegie Corporation of New York; Jennifer Davis, Office of the Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts; Joy Dryfoos, Hastingson-Hudson, New York; Robert Halpern, Erikson Institute; Karen Hein, William T.Grant Foundation; Robin L.Jarrett, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Joan Lombardi, Bush Center in Child Development and Social Policy; Richard Negron, Children’s Aid Society; Terry Peterson, U.S. Department of Education; Karen Pittman, International Youth Foundation/Forum for Youth Investment; Jane Quinn, DeWitt-Wallace Reader’s Digest Fund; Elizabeth Reisner, Policy Studies Associates; Carla Sanger, LA’s Best; Carter Savage, Boys and Girls Clubs of America; Constancia Warren, Academy for Educational Development; and Heather Weiss, Harvard Family Research Project. In January 2000 the committee convened a second one-day Workshop on the Science of Youth Development Programs. Another set of leaders from diverse fields presented their work along with important insights about future directions and current needs: Dale Blyth, Center for

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development 4-H Youth Development; Diane Chamberlain, Valley Community Clinic; Michelle Alberti Gambone, Gambone and Associates; Douglas Kirby, ETR Associates; David Milner, Community Impact! USA; Constancia Warren, Academy for Educational Development; Heather Weiss, Harvard Family Research Project; Kendra Wells, 4-H Youth Development; Gary Yates The California Wellness Foundation; and Hanh Cao Yu, Social Policy Research Associates. In addition to formal workshops, a number of individuals were invited to make presentations and participate in discussions at the regularly scheduled meetings of the committee. In October 1999, we were fortunate to participate in a panel discussion about community programs and suggested future research directions with Ann Segal, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Pam Stevens, Edna McConnell Clark Foundation; and Xavier De Souza Briggs, Division of Research, Evaluation, and Monitoring of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. At the same meeting, Jodie Roth-Herbst, Center for Children and Families, Teachers College, Columbia University, and Jean Grossman, Public/Private Ventures, summarized research on preventing risk behaviors and promoting youth development. Lloyd Kolbe, Division of Adolescent and School Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, also discussed the threats to adolescent health and well-being. In March 2000, several people described public and private supports that exist at the national, state, and local levels and ways in which intermediary organizations are organizing youth programming at the community level. Karen Pittman, International Youth Foundation/Forum for Youth Investment, provided an overview of major youth initiatives and organizations and suggested ways in which they fit together. Dale Blyth, Center for 4-H Youth Development, University of Minnesota, and Jeffrey Arnett, University of Maryland, provided their perspectives on positive youth development and suggested developmental milestones that mark or facilitate the end of adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Karen Reivich and Andrew Shatteé of the University of Pennsylvania summarized their research on the Penn Prevention Project. Michele Cahill, Carnegie Corporation of New York, described the array of activities that currently make up youth development programming. Jean Grossman, Public/Private Ventures, discussed measurement tools, indicators, and processes for youth programs. Finally, Richard Murphy and Constancia Warren of the Academy for Educational Development, dis-

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development cussed policy and system-level supports and barriers for youth development programs. Two committee members spent a day with Richard Catalano at the University of Washington discussing the work he and his colleagues at the Social Development Research Group had done reviewing existing community-based programs for youth. Three other committee members and one staff person spent time with Bruce Saito and his staff at the Los Angeles Conservation Corps learning about their programs and talking with youth participants. We also wish to acknowledge several consultants who either wrote or helped to write documents that were incorporated into this report: Jonathan Zaff, Child Trends, summarized the data on participation levels in youth programs and the measurement of positive youth outcomes; Naweko Dial, a graduate student at Stanford University, reviewed youth program opportunities on Indian reservations; Candice Jones, a law student at Georgetown University, collected information on youth development funding; Joanna Burton, a doctoral student at the University of Illinois-Champaign and an intern with the National Academies, helped review the research on community, school, and family influences on adolescent development; and Janice Templeton, a doctoral student at the University of Michigan, made an extraordinary commitment to reviewing and synthesizing the vast collection of evaluation research on community programs for youth and helped draft Chapters 6 and 7 of this report. Dozens of scientists provided articles, papers, chapters, and books. We are most appreciative of the responses to our requests for information from Robert Blum, Center for Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota; James Connell, Institute for Research and Reform in Education; Delbert Elliot, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, University of Colorado, Boulder; Thaddeus Ferber, International Youth Foundation/Forum for Youth Investment; Michele Gambone, Gambone and Associates; Jean Grossman, Public/Private Ventures; Merita Irby, International Youth Foundation/Forum for Youth Investment; Douglas Kirby, ETR Associates; Bonnie Politz, Academy for Educational Development; and Gary Walker, Public/Private Ventures. The photographs on the cover and used in this report are the work of young people from throughout the United States involved in a youth photography program. Professional photographer Steven Shames taught them to use cameras to capture positive community activities and community change. The photos represent young people engaged in commu-

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development nity service, arts, music, recreation, and mentoring. They are the work of Brittany Green, Lim Mom, Terrell Stewart, Shytise Taylor, and Lenna Vorn. The sponsor of the youth photography program was the EZ/EC Foundation Consortium, a partnership of 10 foundations formed to support implementation of the EZ/EC Initiative’s 10-year effort to revitalize urban and rural areas of deep poverty, and to help document its lessons. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Anthony Biglan, Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR; Angela Diaz, Community Medicine, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York; Kenneth A.Dodge, Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University; Greg J.Duncan, Institute for Policy Research/School of Education and Social Policy, Northwestern University; Paula Duncan, Agency for Human Services, State of Vermont; Lorraine V.Klerman, Maternal and Child Health Program, School of Public Health, University of Alabama; Jane Quinn, The Children’s Aid Society, New York; Robert J.Sampson, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago; Shepherd Smith, Institute for Youth Development, Sterling, VA; Wendy Wheeler, National 4-H Council, Chevy Chase, MD; and Brian Wilcox, Center on Children, Families, and the Law, Lincoln, NE. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Beatrix Hamburg, Department of Psychiatry, Cornell University Medical College. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring panel and the institution. The committee wishes to recognize the important contributions and

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development support provided by several individuals connected to the NRC and the IOM. We thank the members of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families (BOCYF), under the leadership of Evan Charney, and the Forum on Adolescence, under the leadership of David Hamburg. We also thank Kenneth Shine, IOM president; Susanne Stoiber, IOM executive officer; Barbara Torrey, executive director of the NRC’s Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences (DBASSE); Faith Mitchell, DBASSE deputy director; and Jane Ross, director of the Center for Economic and Social Sciences for their steadfast support of the project and their critical review of multiple drafts of the report. It is because of the talent and hard work of Michele Kipke, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, in developing this project and providing encouragement and leadership throughout, that this project was undertaken and completed. We are appreciative of the guidance and mentoring of Elena O.Nightingale, scholar-in-residence, who provided support during each phase of the committee’s work. We are indebted to Eugenia Grohman, associate director for reports of DBASSE, who patiently worked with us through several revisions, and Christine McShane, who provided superb editorial assistance. Mary Graham, Maura Shea, and Michel Rosst of the BOCYF provided advice and assistance with report dissemination, as has Vanee Vines of the National Academies’ Office of News and Public Information. Finally, it is important to acknowledge the exceptional contributions of the National Academies staff who worked on this report. Amy Gawad, research associate, and Rebekah Pinto, senior project assistant, played an invaluable role in collecting, summarizing, and organizing background materials and managing the numerous and often complicated administrative and research responsibilities. Thanks are also due to Drusilla Barnes, senior project assistant, for handling primary administrative responsibilities during the first phase of the committee’s work. Jacquelynne Eccles, Chair Jennifer A.Gootman, Study Director Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   SETTING THE STAGE   19     Growing Support for Programs,   20     Adolescent Development,   21     Committee Charge,   24     Youth in the United States: A Mixed Picture,   25     Scope of the Study,   31     Guide to the Report,   38 I PROMOTING ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT   41 2   ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT   45     Developmental Challenges, Opportunities, and Risks,   47     Summary,   64 3   PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ASSETS THAT PROMOTE WELL-BEING   66     How to Measure Well-Being,   67     Theoretical Perspectives,   70     Practical Wisdom,   71     Empirical Research,   72

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development     Personal and Social Assets,   73     Summary,   84 4   FEATURES OF POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL SETTINGS   86     Features That Maximize Positive Development,   88     Essential Ingredients of Good Programs,   112     Summary,   117 II THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH   119 5   THE LANDSCAPE OF COMMUNITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH   121     Insights from Nonexperimental Studies,   122     A Wide Range of Programs,   123     Features of Community Programs for Youth,   128     Summary,   145 6   LESSONS FROM EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATIONS   147     Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Evaluations,   148     Three Model Program Evaluations,   181     Conclusions About Program Features,   189     Summary,   194 III EVALUATION AND SOCIAL INDICATOR DATA   197 7   GENERATING NEW INFORMATION   201     Evaluating Community Programs for Youth,   204     Questions Asked in Comprehensive Evaluation,   206     Summary,   225 8   DATA AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE RESOURCES   228     Uses of Social Indicator Data,   229     Data Sources,   232     Assessing Program Implementation and Operation,   252     Summary,   261

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development IV THE INTERSECTION OF PRACTICE, POLICY, AND RESEARCH   265 9   FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR PROGRAMS   267     Funding,   269     Functional Supports,   291     Summary,   294 10   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   297     Policy and Practice,   298     Research, Evaluation, and Data Collection,   305     Concluding Thoughts,   314 APPENDIXES     A Fundamental Principles of Human Development   315 B Theoretical Frameworks for Conceptualizing Positive Developmental Processes   320 C Biographical Sketches   328 D Related Reports from the National Academies   335 REFERENCES   342 INDEX   393

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Community Programs to Promote Youth Development COMMUNITY PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

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