INDEX

A

AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science

Accountability in the education system, 8, 33, 59–69

college entrance and placement practices , 64–65

how standards might influence, 67– 68

and nationally developed standards, 68–69

state and district policies, 63–64

ACT, 65

Alignment

of district investment in teacher professional development with nationally developed content standards, 89–90

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 19, 22, 43, 88

American Chemical Society, 75

American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS), 43

Applications of the Framework, 9–10, 79–95

examining claims and inferences reported in current studies, 88–92

generating questions and hypotheses for future investigations, 92–93

situating current studies, 86–88

Aspirations

for a critical view of claims about standards, 94–95

for different forms of inquiry, 94

for Framework-driven research on nationally developed standards, 94–95

regarding the Framework as evolving rather than final, 94

Assessment in the education system, 8, 33, 59–69

in the classroom, 62–63

college entrance and placement practices, 64–65

in the education system, 60–67

how standards might influence, 67– 68

impact and unintended consequences of, 65–67

and nationally developed standards, 68–69

state and district policies, 63–64

B

Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, 22, 88

C

Certification, 52–53

Changes

attributable to nationally developed standards, 6, 37, 81



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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education INDEX A AAAS. See American Association for the Advancement of Science Accountability in the education system, 8, 33, 59–69 college entrance and placement practices , 64–65 how standards might influence, 67– 68 and nationally developed standards, 68–69 state and district policies, 63–64 ACT, 65 Alignment of district investment in teacher professional development with nationally developed content standards, 89–90 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 19, 22, 43, 88 American Chemical Society, 75 American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS), 43 Applications of the Framework, 9–10, 79–95 examining claims and inferences reported in current studies, 88–92 generating questions and hypotheses for future investigations, 92–93 situating current studies, 86–88 Aspirations for a critical view of claims about standards, 94–95 for different forms of inquiry, 94 for Framework-driven research on nationally developed standards, 94–95 regarding the Framework as evolving rather than final, 94 Assessment in the education system, 8, 33, 59–69 in the classroom, 62–63 college entrance and placement practices, 64–65 in the education system, 60–67 how standards might influence, 67– 68 impact and unintended consequences of, 65–67 and nationally developed standards, 68–69 state and district policies, 63–64 B Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, 22, 88 C Certification, 52–53 Changes attributable to nationally developed standards, 6, 37, 81

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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Channels within education through which nationally developed standards influence teaching and learning, 6–8, 82 assessment and accountability, 8 as complex, interactive, and varied, 82 curriculum, 6–7 teacher development, 7–8 Classroom assessment, 62–63 College entrance and placement practices, 64–65 Contextual forces that influence the education system, 71–77 and nationally developed standards, 76–77 as a source of influence, 8–9 in which standards evolved, 18–20 who affects the education system from ‘outside,’ 71–75 Criteria for measuring effectiveness of standards, 82–83 Critical view of claims about standards stimulated by the Framework, 94–95 Current studies on aligning district investment in teacher professional development with nationally developed content standards, 89– 90 on declining science scores in a district committed to NRC standards, 91 examining claims and inferences reported in, 88–92 on standards-based classroom practice in mathematics, 89 on student achievement gains in states which align mathematical standards with NCTM standards, 90–91 Curriculum in the education system, 39– 44 as a channel of influence, 6–7, 32, 39– 47 and development of instructional materials and programs, 41–42 implications of policy decisions for, 39–41 influence of standards on, 44–46 and nationally developed standards, 46–47 selection mechanisms for, 42–44 D Development of instructional materials and programs, 41–42 Development of national standards in mathematics, 20–21 in science, 22–23 in technological literacy, 24 District-level standards assessment and accountability policies, 23, 63–64 curricular, 46 enabling innovative evaluation, 63– 64 influence of corporations on, 73 power residing in, 31 for teacher training, 55 Dual-language materials, 45 E Education governance and channels through which reform might flow, 32 Education Summit, 60 Effects of standards-based practices on decision making, 73–74 on the education system, 71–75 on students, 6, 37–38, 82 Eisenhower Professional Development Program, 40 Elements of the Framework, 33–38 Everyday Mathematics program, 86

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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education F Framework for investigating the influence of education standards, 4–6, 29–38, 80, 113 actions taken, 5, 36–37 changes attributable to standards, 6, 37 changes in teaching created by nationally developed standards, 81 channels of influence as complex, interactive, and varied, 82 criteria by which effectiveness of standards will be measured, 82– 83 effects of changes attributable to influence of standards, 82 effects of standards-based practices on students, 6, 37–38 elements of, 33–38 influence of nationally developed standards as indirect, entangled, and long-term, 81–82 influence within education system as varying, 82 parts addressed in the Briars and Resnick study, 87 reception and interpretation of nationally developed standards, 5, 36 regarded as evolving rather than final, 94 research task for, 82 in review, 79–83 on the U.S. education system, 29–33 Future investigations, 92–93 assembling knowledge, 92 identifying gaps, 93 G Gaps identifying, 93 H Hypothetical studies, 84–85 I Improving America’s Schools Act, 60 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 60 Inquiry different forms stimulated by the Framework, 94 International Technology Education Association (ITEA), 1–3, 12, 17, 19–20, 22, 24, 26–27, 75, 81, 89–90 Iowa Test of Basic Skills, 86 ITEA. See International Technology Education Association K Knowledge assembling, 92 L Licensure, 52–53 Local-level standards. See District-level standards M Mathematics and Science Content Standards and Curriculum, 87–88 Mathematics education Framework for investigating the influence of standards on, 17–27, 80, 113 Mathematics Education of Teachers Project, 51n N Nation at Risk, A, 18 Nation Prepared, A: Teachers for the 21st Century, 18

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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 22, 24 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 61 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS), 53, 62, 72 National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 74 National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), 52 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 1–3, 12, 17, 19–22, 26–27, 75, 81, 86, 88–90 National Education Goals Panel, 19 National Education Summit, 19 National Institutes of Health, 22 National Research Council (NRC), 1–3, 12, 17, 19–20, 22, 26–26, 81, 88, 91 National Science Education Standards, 12, 22, 88 basic principles and features of, 23 National Science Foundation (NSF), 22, 86 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 22, 51n, 75 National standards, 17–27, 80, 113 “black box” of, 12 commonalities across the mathematics, science, and technology standards, 24–27 context in which standards evolved, 18–20 developing, for technological literacy, 24 developing, in mathematics, 20–21 developing, in science, 22–23 evolution of, 18–20 as indirect, entangled, varied, and long-term, 81–82 influence on assessment and accountability, 67–68 influence on curriculum, 44–46 influence on teacher development, 55–56 influence on those “outside” the system, 75–76 perspectives on, 2–3 reception and interpretation of, 5, 36 NBPTS. See National Board for Professional Teaching Standards NCATE. See National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education NCTM. See National Council of Teachers of Mathematics New Standards Mathematics Reference Examination, 86 NRC. See National Research Council NSTA. See National Science Teachers Association P Policy decisions implications of, 39–41 Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, 12, 20–21 basic principles and features of, 21 Professional development ongoing, 53–55 Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics, 12, 20 Q Questions for investigating the influence of nationally developed standards, 35, 92–93 assembling knowledge, 92 identifying gaps, 93 S SAT, 65 Science education Framework for investigating the influence of standards on, 17–27, 80, 113

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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Science for All Americans, 19, 22 Selection mechanisms for texts and instructional materials, 42–44 Situating current studies, 86–88 Mathematics and Science Content Standards and Curriculum , 87–88 Standards, Assessments, and What Else? The Essential Elements of Standards-Based School Improvement, 86–87 Sputnik Soviet launching of, 18 Standards, 17–27, 80, 113 “black box” of, 12 commonalities across the mathematics, science, and technology standards, 24–27 context in which standards evolved, 18–20 developing, for technological literacy, 24 developing, in mathematics, 20–21 developing, in science, 22–23 evolution of, 18–20 as indirect, entangled, varied, and long-term, 81–82 influence on assessment and accountability, 67–68 influence on curriculum, 44–46 influence on teacher development, 55–56 influence on those “outside” the system, 75–76 for mathematics, science, and technology education, 80, 113 perspectives on, 2–3 reception and interpretation of, 5, 36 Standards, Assessments, and What Else? The Essential Elements of Standards-Based School Improvement , 86–87 Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology, 12, 24 basic principles and features of, 25 State-level standards assessment and accountability policies, 23, 63–64 for certification, 52–53 curricular, 35, 44, 46, 90 enabling innovative evaluation, 63– 64 evolution debate in Kansas, 72 incorporating nationally developed standards, 68–69 influence of corporations on, 73 lobbying regarding, 73–74 movements to reform, 19, 81 power residing in, 30–31 on student access, 40 for teacher training, 55 and tests, 39, 60–62 Student achievement gains in states which align mathematical standards with NCTM standards, 90–91 T Teacher development as a channel of influence, 7–8, 33, 49–58, 50–55 certification and licensure, 52–53 in the education system, 50–55 and nationally developed standards, 57–58 on ongoing professional development, 53–55 on teacher preparation, 50–52 Technology education Framework for investigating the influence of standards on, 17–27, 80, 113 Technology for All Americans: A Rationale and Structure for the Study of Technology, 24 Technology for All Americans project, 24 Testing, Teaching, and Learning, 12 Textbook adoption criteria, 45

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Investigating the Influence of Standards: A Framework for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 40, 74 U U.S. Department of Education, 22, 31, 40, 72 U.S. education system, 3–4, 31–33 assessment and accountability, 33 curriculum, 32 teacher development, 33