Channels within education through which nationally developed standards influence teaching and learning, 6–8, 82

assessment and accountability, 8

as complex, interactive, and varied, 82

curriculum, 6–7

teacher development, 7–8

Classroom assessment, 62–63

College entrance and placement practices, 64–65

Contextual forces that influence the education system, 71–77

and nationally developed standards, 76–77

as a source of influence, 8–9

in which standards evolved, 18–20

who affects the education system from ‘outside,’ 71–75

Criteria for measuring effectiveness of standards, 82–83

Critical view of claims about standards stimulated by the Framework, 94–95

Current studies

on aligning district investment in teacher professional development with nationally developed content standards, 89– 90

on declining science scores in a district committed to NRC standards, 91

examining claims and inferences reported in, 88–92

on standards-based classroom practice in mathematics, 89

on student achievement gains in states which align mathematical standards with NCTM standards, 90–91

Curriculum in the education system, 39– 44

as a channel of influence, 6–7, 32, 39– 47

and development of instructional materials and programs, 41–42

implications of policy decisions for, 39–41

influence of standards on, 44–46

and nationally developed standards, 46–47

selection mechanisms for, 42–44


Development of instructional materials and programs, 41–42

Development of national standards

in mathematics, 20–21

in science, 22–23

in technological literacy, 24

District-level standards

assessment and accountability policies, 23, 63–64

curricular, 46

enabling innovative evaluation, 63– 64

influence of corporations on, 73

power residing in, 31

for teacher training, 55

Dual-language materials, 45


Education governance

and channels through which reform might flow, 32

Education Summit, 60

Effects of standards-based practices

on decision making, 73–74

on the education system, 71–75

on students, 6, 37–38, 82

Eisenhower Professional Development Program, 40

Elements of the Framework, 33–38

Everyday Mathematics program, 86

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