What has changed as a result? In investigating the influence of standards, it is important to determine what new policies, programs, or practices can be attributed to the influence of standards. In particular, it would be important to know the extent to which K-12 classroom instruction reflects the content and pedagogy emphasized in the national standards documents.

Who has been affected and how? Nationally developed mathematics, science, and technology standards explicitly call for reform in policies and practice leading to literacy for all students. Investigating the influence of nationally developed standards requires understanding for whom teaching and learning have changed and how their learning has been affected.

CHANNELS OF INFLUENCE

The channels set forth in the Framework, through which reform ideas may flow, have different properties and points of interface with classroom practice.

Curriculum

The influence of nationally developed standards on what students are to learn is filtered through the forces and conditions that define the curriculum and instructional materials in mathematics, science, and technology. What is actually taught in classrooms in the United States is shaped by decisions made at multiple levels—the federal government, states, districts, schools, and individual teachers. Exploring what is taught to whom and why involves addressing the implications of a myriad of policy decisions that affect curriculum and resources to support the curriculum; the development of instructional materials and programs; and the processes and criteria for selecting instructional materials that help determine what students will learn in a particular classroom.

Nationally developed standards can influence the formulation and enactment of curriculum by providing a comprehensive picture of what should be taught, stimulating the creation or adoption of



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