educators, such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the National Science Teachers Association, the International Technology Education Association, and their chapters and affiliates, contribute to the ongoing professional development of their members by producing a wide range of periodicals and other publications; holding conventions and workshops at national, regional, and local levels; and organizing other programs. Some informal educational institutions, such as science centers and museums, and some professional societies, such as the American Chemical Society, also create and publish curriculum materials and provide elementary and secondary teachers with professional development opportunities.

HOW CAN NATIONALLY DEVELOPED STANDARDS INFLUENCE THOSE “OUTSIDE” THE SYSTEM? HOW MIGHT THEY, IN TURN, INFLUENCE THE EDUCATION SYSTEM?

Standards are more likely to have an influence on the education system if they are supported by the “outside” forces, rather than being ignored or even opposed. If the standards are influencing individuals and groups external to the education system as intended, decisions enacted by elected officials and policy makers would show support for standards-based reforms. Professional associations in the forefront of the development of national standards for mathematics, science, and technology would lead national and local efforts to implement the standards, as well as work with elected officials and leaders to build a consensus in support of institutionalizing standards-based reforms.

The traditional school priorities of reading, writing, and arithmetic would be joined by science, technology, and a broader view of mathematics as new “basics” for all students. State and local school boards, reflecting and responding to constituents’ views, would ensure that schools have adequate funding to provide students with learning experiences that will enable them to meet the nationally developed standards.



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