Black, P., and Atkin, M.J. (Eds.). (1996). Changing the subject: Innovations in science, mathematics and technology education. London: Routledge.

Briars, D.J., and Resnick, L.B. (2000). Standards, assessments—and what else? The essential elements of standards-based school improvement. CSE Technical Report 528. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Center for the Study of Evaluation, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

Bybee, R.W. (1997). Achieving scientific literacy: From purposes to practices. Ports-mouth, NH: Heinemann.

Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. (1986). A nation prepared: Teachers for the 21st century. The report of the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. Washington, DC: The Forum.

Carpenter, T.P., Fennema, E., Peterson, P.L., Chiang, C., and Loef, M. (1989). Using knowledge of children’s mathematical thinking in classroom teaching: An experimental study. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 499–532.

Clopton, P., McKeown, E., McKeown, M., and Clopton, J. (1998). Mathematically correct: Algebra I reviews. Available: [Accessed September 13, 2001.]

Clotfeler, C.T., and Ladd, H.F. (1996). Recognizing and rewarding success in public schools. In H.F.Ladd (Ed.), Holding schools accountable: Performance-based reform in education (pp. 23–63). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Cohen, D.K., and Hill, H.G. (2000). Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. Teachers College Record, 102(2), 294–343.

Collins, A. (1997). National Science Education Standards: Looking Backward and Forward. The Elementary School Journal, 97(4), 299–313.

Conference Board on Mathematical Sciences. (2000). CBMS Mathematical Education of Teachers Project. Draft report—September 2000. Available: [Accessed December 12, 2000.]

Council of Chief State School Officers. (1997). Mathematics and science content standards and curriculum frameworks: States progress on development and implementation. Washington, DC: Author.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (1998). Standards, graduation, assessment, teacher licensure, time and attendance: A 50-state report, August 1998. Washington DC: Author.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (1999a). Data from the Annual Survey of State Student Assessment Programs: Data on 1997–1998 statewide student assessment programs, Volume 1 and 2. Washington, DC: Author.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (1999b). State indicators of science and mathematics education: State-by-state trends and new indicators from the 1997–98 school year. Washington, DC: Author.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (2000). Using data on enacted curriculum in mathematics and science: Sample results from a study of classroom practices and subject content. Washington, DC: Author.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000, January). Teaching for America’s future: A progress report for the millennium, Congressional Program, 15(1), 53–66. Paper presented at a conference in Aspen, CO.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement