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DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

A Report of the

Panel on Micronutrients,

Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of

Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

Food and Nutrition Board

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and ZincA Report of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033, T03; the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; the Dietary Reference Intakes Private Foundation Fund, including the Dannon Institute and the International Life Sciences Institute; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors’ Fund. Contributors to the Fund to date include Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc., Kemin Foods, L.C., M&M/Mars, Mead Johnson Nutritionals, Nabisco Foods Group, Natural Source Vitamin E Association, Roche Vitamins Inc., U.S. Borax, and Weider Nutritional Group. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the funders. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc : a report of the Panel on Micronutrients … [et al.], Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-07279-4 (pbk.)—ISBN 0-309-07290-5 (hc.) 1. Trace elements in nutrition. 2. Vitamin A in human nutrition. 3. Vitamin K. 4. Reference Values (Medicine) I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Micronutrients. QP534 .D54 2002 612.3′924--dc21 2001052139 This report is available for sale from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, DC 20055; call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP’s on-line bookstore at http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.iom.edu. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Shaping the Future for Health

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc PANEL ON MICRONUTRIENTS ROBERT RUSSELL (Chair), Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JOHN L. BEARD, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHN T. DUNN, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville GUYLAINE FERLAND, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada K. MICHAEL HAMBIDGE, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver SEAN LYNCH, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Hampton, Virginia JAMES G. PENLAND, U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park BARBARA J. STOEKER, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater JOHN W. SUTTIE, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison JUDITH R. TURNLUND, U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, California KEITH P. WEST, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland STANLEY H. ZLOTKIN, Departments of Pediatrics and Nutritional Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children and The University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Consultants LEWIS BRAVERMAN, School of Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts FRANCOISE DELANGE, Department of Pediatrics, Hôpital Saint-Pierre, Brussels, Belgium Staff PAULA R. TRUMBO, Study Director ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc SUBCOMMITTEE ON UPPER REFERENCE LEVELS OF NUTRIENTS IAN C. MUNRO (Chair), CanTox, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada GEORGE C. BECKING, Phoenix OHC, Kingston, Ontario, Canada RENATE D. KIMBROUGH, Institute for Evaluating Health Risks, Washington, D.C. RITA B. MESSING, Division of Environmental Health, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio HARRIS PASTIDES, School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, The Life Sciences Consultancy LLC, Washington, D.C. IRWIN H. ROSENBERG, Clinical Nutrition Division, the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University and New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln JOHN A. THOMAS, Retired, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio GARY M. WILLIAMS, Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla Staff SANDRA SCHLICKER, Study Director ELISABETH A. REESE, Research Associate MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc SUBCOMMITTEE ON INTERPRETATION AND USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES SUZANNE MURPHY (Chair), Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu LENORE ARAB, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill SUSAN I. BARR, University of British Columbia, Vancouver SUSAN T. BORRA, International Food Information Council, Washington, D.C. ALICIA CARRIQUIRY, Iowa State University, Ames BARBARA L. DEVANEY, Mathematica Policy Research, Princeton, New Jersey JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JEAN-PIERRE HABICHT, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York HARRIET V. KUHNLEIN, Centre for Indigenous Peoples’ Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada Staff MARY POOS, Study Director ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate SHELLEY GOLDBERG, Senior Project Assistant

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES VERNON R. YOUNG (Chair), Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JOHN W. ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair), Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign LINDSAY H. ALLEN, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts JOHN D. FERNSTROM, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas SANFORD A. MILLER, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio WILLIAM M. RAND, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts U.S. Government Liaison ELIZABETH CASTRO, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. Canadian Government Liaison PETER W.F. FISCHER, Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa Consultant GEORGE BEATON, GHB Consulting, Willowdale, Ontario, Canada Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Study Director SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer MARY POOS, Senior Program Officer

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc PAULA TRUMBO, Senior Program Officer ALICE L. VOROSMARTI, Research Associate KIMBERLY FREITAG, Research Assistant MICHELE RAMSEY, Senior Project Assistant GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair), Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ALFRED H. MERRILL, JR. (Vice Chair), Department of Biochemistry, Emory Center for Nutrition and Health Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia ROBERT M. RUSSELL (Vice Chair), Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts VIRGINIA A. STALLINGS (Vice Chair), Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania LARRY R. BEUCHAT, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin BENJAMIN CABALLERO, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland FERGUS M. CLYDESDALE, Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst ROBERT J. COUSINS, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville JOHANNA T. DWYER, Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts SCOTT M. GRUNDY, Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas SHIRIKI KUMANYIKA, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia LYNN PARKER, Child Nutrition Programs and Nutrition Policy, Food Research and Action Center, Washington, D.C. ROSS L. PRENTICE, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington A. CATHARINE ROSS, Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park ROBERT E. SMITH, R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont STEVE L. TAYLOR, Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Staff ALLISON A. YATES, Director GAIL E. SPEARS, Administrative Assistant GARY WALKER, Financial Associate

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Preface This report is one in a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S. and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) working in cooperation with Canadian scientists. The report establishes a set of reference values for vitamin A, vitamin K, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc to replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for the United States and Canada. The report also examines data about arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium. Although all reference values are based on data, available data often were scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that confronted the Panel. Thus, although governed by reasoning, informed judgments often were required in setting reference values. The reasoning used is described for each nutrient in Chapters 4 through 13. Close attention was given to the evidence relating intake of micronutrients to reduction of the risk of chronic disease, and the daily amounts needed to maintain normal status based on biochemical indicators and daily body losses. In addition, a major task of the Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients (UL Subcommittee), and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI Committee) was to analyze the evidence on beneficial and adverse effects

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc staff’s constant assistance. Thus, we also recognize and appreciate the contributions of Sandra Schlicker, Mary Poos, Elisabeth Reese, Alice Vorosmarti, Gail Spears, and Michele Ramsey and thank Pat Stephens for editing the manuscript, Jacqueline Dupont for technical review, and Claudia Carl for assistance with publication. Vernon Young Chair, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Cutberto Garza Chair, Food and Nutrition Board

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Sarah L. Booth, Tufts University James D. Cook, Kansas University Medical Center Mark L. Failla, University of North Carolina Jeanne Freeland-Graves, University of Texas James K. Friel, Memorial University of Newfoundland Walter Mertz, Rockville, Maryland Phylis B. Moser-Veillon, University of Maryland Robert S. Parker, Cornell University John B. Stanbury, Massachusetts General Hospital Clive E. West, Wageningen Agricultural University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Kurt J. Isselbacher, Massachusetts General Hospital and Ronald W. Estabrook, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Appointed by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committees and the institution.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc Contents     SUMMARY   1      What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?,   2      Approach for Setting Dietary Reference Intakes,   7      Nutrient Functions and the Indicators Used to Estimate Requirements,   10      Criteria and Proposed Values for Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   16      Using Dietary Reference Intakes to Assess Nutrient Intakes of Groups,   19      Consideration of the Risk of Chronic Degenerative Disease,   22      Research Recommendations,   26 1   INTRODUCTION TO DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES   29      What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?,   29      Categories of Dietary Reference Intakes,   30      Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes,   36      Summary,   42      References,   42 2   OVERVIEW AND METHODS   44      Methodological Considerations,   45      Estimates of Nutrient Intake,   54      Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada,   55      Summary,   58      References,   58

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 3   A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS   60      Background,   60      A Model for the Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   62      Risk Assessment and Food Safety,   62      Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients,   67      Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level,   71      Intake Assessment,   79      Risk Characterization,   79      References,   80 4   VITAMIN A   82      Summary,   82      Background Information,   83      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin A,   97      Factors Affecting the Vitamin A Requirement,   106      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   110      Intake of Vitamin A,   122      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   125      Research Recommendations for Vitamin A,   146      References,   146 5   VITAMIN K   162      Summary,   162      Background Information,   162      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin K,   165      Factors Affecting the Vitamin K Requirement,   173      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   176      Intake of Vitamin K,   184      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   187      Research Recommendations for Vitamin K,   189      References,   189 6   CHROMIUM   197      Summary,   197      Background Information,   197      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Chromium,   202

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc      Factors Affecting the Chromium Requirement,   204      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   205      Intake of Chromium,   211      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   213      Research Recommendations for Chromium,   216      References,   217 7   COPPER   224      Summary,   224      Background Information,   224      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Copper,   229      Factors Affecting the Copper Requirement,   233      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   235      Intake of Copper,   245      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   246      Research Recommendations for Copper,   252      References,   252 8   IODINE   258      Summary,   258      Background Information,   258      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iodine,   262      Factors Affecting the Iodine Requirement,   267      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   268      Intake of Iodine,   277      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   278      Research Recommendations for Iodine,   284      References,   284 9   IRON   290      Summary,   290      Background Information,   290      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Iron,   300      Factors Affecting the Iron Requirement,   311      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   316      Intake of Iron,   355      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   356      Research Recommendations for Iron,   378      References,   378

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 10   MANGANESE   394      Summary,   394      Background Information,   394      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Manganese,   397      Factors Affecting the Manganese Requirement,   401      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   402      Intake of Manganese,   407      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   408      Research Recommendations for Manganese,   414      References,   415 11   MOLYBDENUM   420      Summary,   420      Background Information,   420      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Molybdenum,   422      Factors Affecting the Molybdenum Requirement,   424      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   425      Intake of Molybdenum,   432      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   433      Research Recommendations for Molybdenum,   439      References,   439 12   ZINC   442      Summary,   442      Background Information,   442      Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Zinc,   447      Factors Affecting the Zinc Requirement,   454      Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,   458      Intake of Zinc,   480      Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,   481      Research Recommendations for Zinc,   488      References,   489 13   ARSENIC, BORON, NICKEL, SILICON, AND VANADIUM   502      Summary,   502      Arsenic,   503      Boron,   510      Nickel,   521      Silicon,   529

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc      Vanadium,   532      References,   543 14   USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES   554      Overview,   554      Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,   555      Assessing Nutrient Intakes of Groups,   558      Planning Nutrient Intakes of Individuals,   562      Planning Nutrient Intakes of Groups,   563      Nutrient-Specific Considerations,   564      Summary,   576      References,   578 15   A RESEARCH AGENDA   580      Approach,   580      Major Knowledge Gaps,   581      The Research Agenda,   584     APPENDIXES     A   Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes,   587 B   Acknowledgments,   591 C   Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,   594 D   Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,   644 E   Dietary Intake Data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study, 1991–1997,   654 F   Canadian Dietary Intake Data, 1990,   674 G   Biochemical Indicators for Iron, Vitamin A, and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,   680 H   Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,   692 I   Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1996,   697 J   Glossary and Acronyms,   704 K   Conversion of Units,   709 L   Options for Dealing with Uncertainties,   710 M   Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members,   715

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc     INDEX   729     SUMMARY TABLE, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins   770     SUMMARY TABLE, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements   772

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc

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