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TABLE S-4 Criteria and Dietary Reference Intake Values for Copper by Life Stage Group

Life Stage Group

Criterion

0 through 6 mo

Average copper intake from human milk

7 through 12 mo

Average copper intake from human milk and complementary foods

1 through 3 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

4 through 8 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

9 through 13 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

14 through 18 y

Extrapolation from adult EAR

19 through 50 y

Plasma copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and platelet copper concentrations and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity

≥ 51 y

Extrapolation from 19 through 50 y

Pregnancy

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus fetal accumulation of copper

19 through 50 y

Adult female EAR plus fetal accumulation of copper

Lactation

 

14 through 18 y

Adolescent female EAR plus average amount of copper secreted in human milk

19 through 50 y

Adult female EAR plus average amount of copper secreted in human milk

a EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. The intake that meets the estimated nutrient needs of half of the individuals in a group.

b RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. The intake that meets the nutrient need of almost all (97–98 percent) of individuals in a group.

c AI = Adequate Intake. The observed average or experimentally determined intake by a defined population or subgroup that appears to sustain a defined nutritional status, such as growth rate, normal circulating nutrient values, or other functional indicators of health. The AI is used if sufficient scientific evidence is not available to derive an EAR. For healthy infants receiving human milk, the AI is the mean intake. The AI is not equivalent to an RDA.

Study. The AI for adult men and women is 2.3 and 1.8 mg/day, respectively.

Molybdenum functions as a cofactor for several enzymes in a form called molybdopterin. An inborn error of metabolism that leads to a deficiency of sulfite oxidase is due to the lack of molybdopterin, which results in neurological dysfunction and mental retardation. Molybdenum balance data were used to set an EAR. The RDA for adults for molybdenum is 45 μg/day for men and women. There were insufficient data to set a different EAR and RDA for each gender.



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