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vitamin A deficiency or for individuals being treated for diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, with vitamin A.


  • Effects of food matrices (e.g., carotenoids in milk and supplements) on the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids.

  • Age-related differences in the bioavailability of vitamin A.

  • Defined critical endpoints for population assessment for vitamin A and evaluation of their association with liver vitamin A stores.

  • Effect of dietary vitamin A and vitamin A status on turnover and utilization of vitamin A. Is there significant adaptation to low vitamin A intakes? Is vitamin A absorption increased in response to low vitamin A intake? Is catabolism upregulated as body stores increase?

  • Relationship of bioactive vitamin A indicators (e.g., retinoic acid) to dietary vitamin A intake.

  • Effects of pregnancy and lactation on maternal vitamin A turnover.

  • Effect of the interaction of vitamin A with other nutrients and food processing on the bioavailability of vitamin A.


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