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vitamin A deficiency or for individuals being treated for diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, with vitamin A.

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VITAMIN A

  • Effects of food matrices (e.g., carotenoids in milk and supplements) on the bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids.

  • Age-related differences in the bioavailability of vitamin A.

  • Defined critical endpoints for population assessment for vitamin A and evaluation of their association with liver vitamin A stores.

  • Effect of dietary vitamin A and vitamin A status on turnover and utilization of vitamin A. Is there significant adaptation to low vitamin A intakes? Is vitamin A absorption increased in response to low vitamin A intake? Is catabolism upregulated as body stores increase?

  • Relationship of bioactive vitamin A indicators (e.g., retinoic acid) to dietary vitamin A intake.

  • Effects of pregnancy and lactation on maternal vitamin A turnover.

  • Effect of the interaction of vitamin A with other nutrients and food processing on the bioavailability of vitamin A.

REFERENCES

AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases). 1993. Vitamin A treatment of measles. Pediatrics 91:1014–1015.

Abedin Z, Hussain MA, Ahmad K. 1976. Liver reserve of vitamin A from medico-legal cases in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 2:43–51.

Alvarez JO, Salazar-Lindo E, Kohatsu J, Miranda P, Stephensen CB. 1995. Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhea. Am J Clin Nutr 61:1273–1276.

Amedee-Manesme O, Anderson D, Olson JA. 1984. Relation of the relative dose response to liver concentrations of vitamin A in generally well-nourished surgical patients. Am J Clin Nutr 39:898–902.

Amedee-Manesme O, Mourey MS, Hanck A, Therasse J. 1987. Vitamin A relative dose response test: Validation by intravenous injection in children with liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr 46:286–289.

Amine EK, Corey J, Hegsted DM, Hayes KC. 1970. Comparative hematology during deficiencies of iron and vitamin A in the rat. J Nutr 100:1033–1040.

Arena JM, Sarazen P, Baylin GJ. 1951. Hypervitaminosis A: Report of an unusual case with marked craniotabes. Pediatrics 8:788–794.

Arroyave G, Aguilar JR, Flores M, Guzman MA. 1979. Evaluation of Sugar Fortification with Vitamin A at the National Level. Scientific Publication No. 384. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization.

Arthur P, Kirkwood B, Ross D, Morris S, Gyapong J, Tomkins A, Addy H. 1992. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity in northern Ghana. Lancet 339:361–362.



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