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ed in cow milk, yet its physiological function in infant nutrition is unknown (Indyk and Woollard, 1997). Vitamin K has been shown to specifically and reversibly bind to a protein complex in cow milk (Fournier et al., 1987). There is no information on the bioavailability of vitamin K in infant formula.

Children and Adolescents Ages 1 through 18 Years

Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake

No data were found on which to base an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin K for children or adolescents. Therefore AIs are set on the basis of the highest median intake for each age group reported by the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (Appendix Table C-10) and rounding. The significant increase in the AI from infancy to early childhood is most likely due to the method used to set the AI for older infants and the increased portion of the diet containing vitamin K-rich fruits and vegetables as the diet becomes more diversified.

Vitamin K AI Summary, Ages 1 through 18 Years

AI for Children

 

1–3 years

30 μg/day of vitamin K

4–8 years

55 μg/day of vitamin K

AI for Boys

 

9–13 years

60 μg/day of vitamin K

14–18 years

75 μg/day of vitamin K

AI for Girls

 

9–13 years

60 μg/day of vitamin K

14–18 years

75 μg/day of vitamin K

Adults Ages 19 Years and Older

Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake

Clinically significant vitamin K deficiency is extremely rare in the general population, with cases being limited to individuals with malabsorption syndromes or those treated with drugs known to interfere with vitamin K metabolism. The recent development of indicators sensitive to vitamin K intake, though useful to describe relative



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