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AI. In the Total Diet Study, phylloquinone intakes of pregnant women were lower than those of nonpregnant women (Appendix Table E-1). Similarly, the median vitamin K intake for pregnant women was approximately 80 μg/day, whereas the vitamin K intake of premenopausal women was approximately 85 to 90 μg/day from NHANES III (Appendix Table C-10). In a recent report by Booth and coworkers (1999c), phylloquinone intakes were estimated from 14-day food diaries for a small group of pregnant women (n = 17) and were found to be similar (72 ± 56 μg/day [SD]) to those of nonpregnant women (73 ± 46 μg/day [SD]).

Although supplementation with pharmacological doses of vitamin K during the later stages of pregnancy has been shown to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin K and improve coagulation function of pregnant women in some studies (Anai et al., 1993; Morales et al., 1988), the impact of antenatal supplementation on status of the newborn has been mixed (Dickson et al., 1994; Kazzi et al., 1990; Morales et al., 1988). Until more data are available, there is no evidence to suggest that the AI for pregnant women should be different from that for nonpregnant women. Therefore, the AI is based on median NHANES III intake estimates of nonpregnant women.

Vitamin K AI Summary, Pregnancy

AI for Pregnancy

 

14–18 years

75 μg/day of vitamin K

19–30 years

90 μg/day of vitamin K

31–50 years

90 μg/day of vitamin K

Lactation

Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake

Available studies suggest the vitamin K status of lactating women is comparable to that of nonlactating women. Reported vitamin K intake of pregnant women does not differ significantly from those of nonlactating women. In a study by Greer and coworkers (1991) involving 23 lactating mothers, phylloquinone intakes at 6, 12, and 26 weeks were 302 ± 361 (standard deviation [SD]), 296 ± 169 (SD), and 436 ± 667 (SD) μg/day, respectively. There was no significant correlation between phylloquinone intake and breast milk concentration. Based on NHANES III intake estimates, median phylloquinone intakes of 99 lactating women was 74 μg/day, which is



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