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Reference

Study Group

Stage of Lactation

Milk Concentration (μg/L)

Estimated Copper Intake of Infants (μg/d)a

Butte et al., 1987

45 women

1 mo

 

270

2 mo

230

3 mo

210

4 mo

200

Casey et al., 1989

22 women

7 d

620

480

5 mo

220

170

Anderson, 1992

7 women

Up to 5 mo

310

240

Anderson, 1993

6 women, 20–30 y

 

110–380

 

Biego et al., 1998

17 milk samples

Mature milk

250

190

Rossipal and Krachler, 1998

46 women

1–3 d

570

440

42–60 d

230

180

97–293 d

150

90

NOTE: Maternal intakes were reported in only two studies: in Vaughan et al. (1979), mean intakes (mg/day) were 3.64, 1.90, 2.37, 6.80, and 2.50 at 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, 13–18, and 19–31 months; in Vuori et al. (1980), mean intakes (mg/day) were 1.88 at 6–8 weeks and 1.73 at 17–22 weeks.

a Copper intake based on reported data or concentration (μg/L) × 0.78 L/day for 0–6 months postpartum and concentration (μg/L) × 0.6 L/day for 7–12 months postpartum.

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the median copper intake from weaning food for children aged 7 through 12 months is 100 μg/day (n = 45). The average copper concentration in human milk declines over time, and between 7 and 12 months postpartum the concentration is 200 μg/L or less (Table 7-1). Based on an average volume of 0.6 L/day of human milk that is secreted, the copper intake from human milk is 120 μg/day (0.6 × 200). Therefore the total intake of copper from human milk and complementary foods is 220 μg/day (120 + 100). For a 9 kg infant (reference weight 7 through 12 months, Chapter 2), this would be 24 μg/ kg/day (220 μg/kg ÷ 9 kg).

If the AI were extrapolated from the AI for younger infants by using the calculation in chapter 2, the average intake would be 241 μg/day.



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