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may contain humic substances that block thyroidal iodination; and crucifera vegetables (e.g., cabbage). Most of these substances are not of major clinical importance unless there is coexisting iodine deficiency. Deficiencies of vitamin A, selenium, or iron can each exacerbate the effects of iodine deficiency.

Other Factors

Many ingested substances contain large amounts of iodine that can interfere with proper thyroid function. These include radiocontrast media, food coloring, certain medicines (e.g., amiodarone), water purification tablets, and skin and dental disinfectants. Erythrosine is a coloring agent widely used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products, and contains high amounts of iodine. Data suggest that the increased thyroid stimulating hormone levels found following erythrosine ingestion is related to antithyroid effects of increased serum iodide concentrations, rather than a direct effect of erythrosine on thyroid hormones (Gardner et al., 1987). Similar to erythrosine, amiodarone, a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug that contains high levels of iodine, may alter thyroid gland function (Loh, 2000). Radiographic contrast media, following intravascular administration, results in the formation of iodinated serum proteins, which alter thyroid metabolism (Nilsson et al., 1987).

FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP

Infants Ages 0 through 12 Months

Method Used to Set the Adequate Intake

No functional criteria of iodine status have been demonstrated that reflect response to dietary intake in infants. Thus, recommended intakes of iodine are based on an Adequate Intake (AI) that reflects the observed mean iodine intake of infants exclusively fed human milk.

Ages 0 through 6 Months. An AI is used as the recommended intake level for infants as determined by the method described in Chapter 2. The AI reflects the observed mean iodine intake of infants fed human milk. Iodine concentrations in human milk are influenced by maternal iodine intake (Gushurst et al., 1984). The median iodine concentration in human milk of American women who consumed noniodized salt was 113 μg/L, whereas the concentration in



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