b ND = not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern about lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.
c Although vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food, and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals and this data could be used to set a UL for adults, but not for children or adolescents.
studies to identify and further understand the functional (e.g., cognitive function, regulation of insulin, bone health, and immune function) and biochemical endpoints that reflect sufficient and insufficient body stores of vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc;
studies to further identify and quantify the effects of interactions between micronutrients and interactions between micronutrients and other food components, the food matrix, food processing, and life stage on micronutrient (vitamin A, vitamin K, chromium, copper, iron, and zinc) bioavailability and therefore dietary requirement;