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Derivation of a UL. The LOAEL of 1,700 μg/day was divided by a UF of 1.5 to obtain a UL of 1,133 μg/day of iodine, which was rounded down to 1,100 μg/day.

Iodine UL Summary, Ages 19 Years and Older

UL for Adults


19 years

1,100 μg/day of iodine

Other Life Stage Groups

Infants. For infants, the UL was judged not determinable because of insufficient data on adverse effects in this age group and concern about the infant’s ability to handle excess amounts. To prevent high intake, the only source of intake for infants should be from food and formula.

Children and Adolescents. Given the dearth of information, the UL values for children and adolescents are extrapolated from those established for adults. Thus, the adult UL of 1,100 μg/day of iodine was adjusted for children and adolescents on the basis of body weight as described in Chapter 2 and using reference weights from Chapter 1 (Table 1-1). Values have been rounded down.

Pregnancy and Lactation. No altered susceptibility of pregnant or lactating women to excess iodine has been noted. Therefore, the UL for pregnant and lactating females is the same as that for nonpregnant and nonlactating females.

Iodine UL Summary, Ages 0 through 18 Years, Pregnancy, Lactation

UL for Infants


0–12 months

Not possible to establish; source of intake should be from food and formula only

UL for Children


1–3 years

200 μg/day of iodine

4–8 years

300 μg/day of iodine

9–13 years

600 μg/day of iodine

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