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UL for Adolescents

 

14–18 years

900 μg/day of iodine

UL for Pregnancy

 

14–18 years

900 μg/day of iodine

19–50 years

1,100 μg/day of iodine

UL for Lactation

 

14–18 years

900 μg/day of iodine

19–50 years

1,100 μg/day of iodine

Special Considerations

Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is common in the U.S. population and particularly in older adult women. Individuals with AITD who are treated for iodine deficiency or nodular goiter (Carnell and Valente, 1998; Foley, 1992; Massoudi et al., 1995) may have increased sensitivity to adverse effects of iodine intake. Some young adults with simple goiter and iodine deficiency who were supplemented with 200 μg/day of iodine developed either mild transient hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, positive antibodies, and reversible histological changes of lymphocytic thyroiditis (Kahaly et al., 1997). The sensitivities of these distinct subgroups do not fall within the range of sensitivities expected for the healthy population.

Studies have correlated an increase in the incidence of AITD with a population’s higher intake of iodine (Foley, 1992). Additional data provide some correlation between the incidence of circulating antithyroid antibodies (a marker for AITD) and dietary iodine intake (Schuppert et al., 2000). At this time there is not sufficient data to determine a UL for this subpopulation. Therefore, a UL could not be set for individuals with AITD.

Intake Assessment

Iodine is secreted in human and cow’s milk and is present in dairy products, marine fish, and a variety of foods grown in iodide-rich soils. It is especially high in some foods, such as certain seaweed. Normal diets are unlikely to supply more than 1 mg/day. Also, a variety of environmental and therapeutic exposures are adventitious sources of iodine (Farwell and Braverman, 1996). Intake of 10 g of 0.001 percent iodized salt results in an intake of 770 μg/day. Based on the Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study (Appendix Table E-4), the highest intake of dietary iodine for any life stage or



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