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these high ferritin concentrations and their relationship to dietary iron intake is uncertain. Nevertheless, the association between a high iron intake and iron overload in sub-Saharan Africa makes it prudent to recommend that men and postmenopausal women avoid iron supplements and highly fortified foods. Currently, doses equal to or greater than the UL are used for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are being treated with iron under close medical supervision.

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IRON

  • Determination of the significance of high ferritin concentration.

  • Investigation of the effect of iron absorption and dietary iron on phenotypic expressions in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis.

  • Research to distinguish between hereditary hemochromatosis and iron overload.

  • Study of the effect of limited iron intake during pregnancy on infant iron status during the first 6 months of life.

  • Bioavailability of supplemental iron.

  • Concurrence on valid indicators for assessing the effect of iron deficiency anemia on cognitive development and function.

  • The risk of cardiovascular disease for those with high stores of body iron.

  • The relationship between high iron stores in men and the bioavailability of dietary iron and impaired regulation of iron balance.

  • The relationship between iron consumption and oxidative cellular damage.

  • Integrative mechanisms of iron transporter proteins that influence gastrointestinal absorption in various dietary conditions and physiologic states.

REFERENCES

AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). 1999. Iron fortification of infant formulas. Pediatrics 104:119–123.

Abma JC, Chandra A, Mosher WD, Peterson LS, Piccinino LJ. 1997. Fertility, family planning, and women’s health: New data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23:1–114.

Abrams SA, Wen J, Stuff JE. 1997. Absorption of calcium, zinc, and iron from breast milk by five- to seven-month-old infants. Pediatr Res 41:384–390.



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